Himax - 18650 Battery Pack for Solar

In recent years, compared to li ion customized battery packs, sodium-ion batteries have continued to develop in the industry and are now gradually being put into use.


What are the outstanding advantages of sodium-ion batteries compared with li ion customized battery packs?

According to current industry test data analysis, sodium-ion batteries not only have better safety, but are more cold-resistant than li ion customized battery packs when encountering low temperatures of -40°C.


Sodium-ion batteries have no over-discharge characteristics, allowing sodium-ion batteries to discharge to zero volts. The energy density of sodium-ion batteries is greater than 100Wh/kg, which is comparable to lithium iron phosphate batteries. However, its cost advantage is obvious, and it is expected to replace traditional lead-acid batteries in the large-scale energy storage industry.

Himax - Solar street light battery-Li Ion Customized Battery Packs

The working principle of sodium-ion batteries is the same as that of lithium-ion batteries, and the existing production equipment of lithium ion battery companies can be directly used to produce sodium-ion batteries. Since there is basically no equipment investment, it is easy for companies to produce them as alternative batteries.


Although the energy density of sodium-ion batteries is not as high as lithium-ion batteries, due to the abundant Na resources and easy availability, and the current high price of lithium carbonate, Na-ion batteries still have very broad application prospects in the long run. It still has application prospects in some fields that do not require high energy density, such as grid energy storage, peak shaving, wind power energy storage, etc.


Himax has now also begun to provide sodium-ion battery solutions to our customers to meet the needs of industry development.


Your inquiries are warmly welcome.

Contact Himax now to unlock your exclusive battery customization options, Himax offers a wide range of options and flexible customization services to meet the needs of different users.
If you have any question, please feel free to contact us:

  • Name: Dawn Zeng (Director)
  • E-mail address: sales@himaxelectronics.com
Himax - Li-Ion-4s-14.8v-Battery

While 18650 lithium ion battery pack currently dominate the industry, serious concern remains about the limited availability of lithium used in these batteries. Conversely, sodium-ion batteries provide a more sustainable alternative due to the tremendous abundance of salt in our oceans, thereby potentially providing a lower-cost alternative to the rapidly growing demand for energy storage.

Currently most sodium-ion batteries contain a liquid electrolyte, which has a fundamental flammability risk. In contrast, Sodium (Na) Super Ionic Conductor (NASICON) materials are non-flammable solid-state electrolytes with high ionic conductivity and superior chemical and electrochemical stability.

Researchers within the University of Maryland’s A. James Clark School of Engineering, have now developed a NASICON-based solid-state sodium battery (SSSB) architecture that outperforms current sodium-ion batteries in its ability to use sodium metal as the anode for higher energy density, cycle it at record high rates, and all with a more stable ceramic electrolyte that is not flammable like current liquid electrolytes.

18650 Lithium Ion Battery Pack

Dr. Eric Wachsman, Distinguished University Professor and Director of the Maryland Energy Innovation Institute notes, “Sodium opens the opportunity for more sustainable and lower cost energy storage while solid-state sodium-metal technology provides the opportunity for higher energy density batteries. However, until now no one has been able to achieve the high room temperature solid-state sodium-metal cycling rates we have achieved here.”

The unique 3D electrolyte architecture was recently published in Energy & Environmental Science and provides the promise of high energy density and commercially viable solid-state sodium batteries. The successful demonstration of both stable sodium cycling at high current densities and full cell cycling with thin 3D structured ion-conducting NASICON solid-electrolytes are a significant advancement towards sustainable and more economical energy storage technology.

More information: Prem Wicram Jaschin et al, High-rate cycling in 3D dual-doped NASICON architectures toward room-temperature sodium-metal-anode solid-state batteries, Energy & Environmental Science (2023). DOI: 10.1039/D3EE03879C

Journal information: Energy & Environmental Science

If you have any question, please feel free to contact us:

  • Name: Dawn Zeng (Director)
  • E-mail address: sales@himaxelectronics.com

Researchers led by Genki Kobayashi at the RIKEN Cluster for Pioneering Research in Japan have developed a solid electrolyte for transporting hydride ions (H−) at room temperature.


This breakthrough means that the advantages of hydrogen-based solid-state batteries and fuel cells are within practical reach, including improved safety, efficiency, and energy density, which are essential for advancing toward a practical hydrogen-based energy economy. The study was published in the journal Advanced Energy Materials.


For hydrogen-based energy storage and fuel to become more widespread, it needs to be safe, very efficient, and as simple as possible. Current hydrogen-based fuel cells used in electric cars work by allowing hydrogen protons to pass from one end of the fuel cell to the other through a polymer membrane when generating energy.


Efficient, high-speed hydrogen movement in these fuel cells requires water, meaning that the membrane must be continually hydrated so as not to dry out. This constraint adds a layer of complexity and cost to battery and fuel cell design, limiting the practicality of a next-generation hydrogen-based energy economy. To overcome this problem, scientists have been struggling to find a way to conduct negative hydride ions through solid materials, particularly at room temperature.


The wait is over. “We have achieved a true milestone,” says Kobayashi. “Our result is the first demonstration of a hydride ion-conducting solid electrolyte at room temperature.”


The team had been experimenting with lanthanum hydrides (LaH3-δ) for several reasons: the hydrogen can be released and captured relatively easily, hydride ion conduction is very high, they can work below 100°C, and have a crystal structure.

Hybrid-car-battery (Nickel-metal hydride battery)

But, at room temperature, the number of hydrogens attached to lanthanum fluctuates between 2 and 3, making it impossible to have efficient conduction. This problem is called hydrogen non-stoichiometry and was the biggest obstacle overcome in the new study. When the researchers replaced some of the lanthanum with strontium (Sr) and added just a pinch of oxygen—for a basic formula of La1-xSrxH3-x-2yOy, they got the results they were hoping for.


The team prepared crystalline samples of the material using a process called ball-milling, followed by annealing. They studied the samples at room temperature and found that they could conduct hydride ions at a high rate. Then, they tested its performance in a solid-state fuel cell made from the new material and titanium, varying the amounts of strontium and oxygen in the formula. With an optimal value of at least 0.2 strontium, they observed complete 100% conversion of titanium to titanium hydride, or TiH2. This means that almost zero hydride ions were wasted.


“In the short-term, our results provide material design guidelines for hydride ion-conducting solid electrolytes,” says Kobayashi. “In the long-term, we believe this is an inflection point in the development of batteries, fuel cells, and electrolytic cells that operate by using hydrogen.”


The next step will be to improve performance and create electrode materials that can reversibly absorb and release hydrogen. This would allow batteries to be recharged, as well as make it possible to place hydrogen in storage and easily release it when needed, which is a requirement for hydrogen-based energy use.


More information: Yoshiki Izumi et al, Electropositive Metal Doping into Lanthanum Hydride for H− Conducting Solid Electrolyte Use at Room Temperature, Advanced Energy Materials (2023). DOI: 10.1002/aenm.202301993

Journal information: Advanced Energy Materials

If you have any question, please feel free to contact us:

  • Name: Dawn Zeng (Director)
  • E-mail address: sales@himaxelectronics.com
Himax Decorative Pictures - battery pro

Batteries are typically identified by their chemistry and voltage. “5V” stands for 5 volts, which is a measure of the electrical potential difference or voltage that the battery can deliver. Batteries with a 5V output are commonly associated with USB (Universal Serial Bus) power, and they are often used to charge or power various electronic devices.

The physical appearance of a 5V battery would depend on its specific form factor and type. Here are some diverse form factors and types:

18650 5v 2200mAh Rechargeable Lithium Ion Battery - Himax

Cylindrical Batteries

Some devices use regular AA or AAA batteries, typically delivering 1.5 volts each, but they include internal boost converters to increase the voltage to 5V. Through battery holders, innovative configurations, and the application of boost converters, these familiar cylindrical cells become essential building blocks for customized power solutions.


Coin Cell Batteries

Like the CR2032, coin cell batteries are flat and round. These batteries usually provide 3 volts, and a boost converter can be used to increase the output to 5 volts.


USB Power Banks

USB ports on the power bank indicate the 5V output. They often have a rectangular or cylindrical shape, similar to a small brick or tube. USB power banks commonly provide 5 volts for charging electronic devices.

5v 2200mAh Rechargeable Battery

Custom Battery Packs

For those seeking a tailored approach to portable power, custom battery packs come into play. Devices with unique form factors or specific power requirements often rely on custom-designed battery solutions. These can vary widely in shape and appearance based on the application and design specifications.


Rechargeable Lithium-ion Batteries

As we delve deeper, rechargeable lithium-ion batteries take the spotlight. Renowned for their energy density and versatility, these batteries come in various shapes and sizes, often cylindrical, and have a label indicating the voltage. A voltage regulator or booster might be used to achieve a 5V output.


Remember, achieving a 5V output might involve additional circuitry or combining multiple batteries, as many standard batteries provide lower voltages. From USB power banks to custom packs and beyond, the options are as varied as the applications they serve. As technology continues to advance, the quest for portable power solutions will undoubtedly lead to even more innovative form factors.


HIMAX can provide customized 5v rechargeable battery packs according to your needs. If you have any question, please feel free to contact us:

  • Name: Dawn Zeng (Director)
  • E-mail address: sales@himaxelectronics.com

Electrolytes are key custom lithium battery pack components that transfer charge carrying particles (i.e., ions) back and forth between two electrodes, ultimately allowing batteries to repeatedly charge and discharge. Engineering and identifying promising electrolytes can help to improve the performance and properties of batteries, allowing them to better support the needs of the electronics industry.

Lithium-metal batteries (LMBs) are a promising class of batteries that have been found to have numerous advantageous properties, including longer battery use per single charge. However, electrodes in these batteries are prone to become corroded when exposed to some chemicals, which makes the design of suitable liquid electrolytes for these batteries challenging.

Researchers at the Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) and LG Energy Solution in South Korea recently engineered a new liquid electrolyte for LMBs based on lean borate-pyran. Their paper, published in Nature Energy, shows that this electrolyte could minimize corrosion in LMBs, while retaining their performance.

“Lithium metal batteries are undergoing development with the aim of maximizing battery energy density,” Hee-Tak Kim, one of the researchers who carried out the study, told Tech Xplore. “However, the current obstacle lies in the electrolyte, which currently represents the second-highest weight fraction in the battery. To effectively implement high energy density, it is imperative to reduce the amount of electrolyte used.”

How Low can a custom lithium battery pack be discharged?(Demo picture)

The recent work by Kim and his colleagues draws inspiration from an earlier paper by a research team at Stanford University, published in Science. The authors of this paper found that the swelling of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), a protective layer created on the surface of anodes in lithium batteries, ultimately prompts the reversibility of Li metal electrodes.

“Motivated by the finding, we tried to devise a strategy to build a SEI with minimal liquid electrolyte swelling and consequently minimal Li corrosion,” Kim said. “To make Li-metal batteries work, two requirements should be met, namely uniform Li plating/stripping and minimal Li corrosion. Our electrolyte design achieves both requirements by inducing the densely packed, nanocrystalline, and inorganic-rich SEI.”

The borate-pyran based electrolyte engineered by this team of researchers produces the anti-Oswald ripening of LiF crystallites in the SEI. This process in turn prompts the formation of the SEI, while also reducing the protective layers’ swelling and thus minimizing the electrodes’ corrosion.

In the future, the new promising liquid electrolyte identified by Kim and his colleagues could be tested in further experiments and integrated in other LMBs with varying designs. In addition, this recent work could inform the engineering of additional electrolytes, thus contributing to ongoing efforts aimed at introducing better performing battery designs.

“Our recent paper emphasizes the critical role of the microstructure of SEI in addressing the problem of Li corrosion,” Kim added. “Furthermore, the microstructure can be strategically restructured by the unique design of the electrolyte. The ultimate goal of Li metal battery technology is to achieve an anode-free lithium metal battery and to enable high-rate charging. Our efforts are dedicated to resolving the pivotal challenges associated with making these cutting-edge technologies a reality.”

More information: Hyeokjin Kwon et al, Borate–pyran lean electrolyte-based Li-metal batteries with minimal Li corrosion, Nature Energy (2023). DOI: 10.1038/s41560-023-01405-6

Journal information: Science , Nature Energy

If you have any question, please feel free to contact us:

  • Name: Dawn Zeng (Director)
  • E-mail address: sales@himaxelectronics.com
Himax - 14.8v-2500mAh 18650 battery pack

The rated capacities are different:

IFR26650 lithium battery has a rated capacity of 3000-5000mAh, and 18650 lithium ion battery pack has a rated capacity of 2200~3200mAh.

The sizes are different:

the diameter of IFR26650 is 26 mm, and the diameter of IFR18650 is 18 mm.

The weight is different:

the weight of IFR26650 lithium battery is 94 grams, and the weight of IFR18650 lithium battery is 45 grams.

The capacities are different:

the 26650 battery capacity is larger than the 18650 battery capacity. Assuming that the 26650 battery using ternary materials is used, the capacity is generally around 5200mAh; while the capacity of the 18650 battery is mostly around 2600mAh.

Different application environments:

18650 lithium batteries are widely used in lighting fixtures, industrial accessories, power tools, electric bicycles, power lithium battery packs, etc.; while 26650 lithium batteries are widely used in power tools, lighting, wind and solar energy storage, electric vehicles, toys, instrumentation, UPS backup power supply, communication equipment, medical equipment and lights.

18650-4000mah-18650 Lithium Ion Battery Pack

When the battery compartment space is relatively small and you want a larger capacity, it is recommended to use 26650 batteries.


Himax focus on 18650 lithium ion battery pack and 26650 Lithium Ion battery pack manufacturing for over 12 years. We can provide all kinds of custom lithium battery pack for customers. Please get in touch with us if you need a power solution to your device.

HIMAX can make all kinds of custom lithium battery pack and 12v Lead Acid Replacement Battery for our customers. We have full of confidence to meet your quality level. Looking forward to build a long term business with you and we wait for your kind respond

Contact Himax now to unlock your exclusive battery customization options, Himax offers a wide range of options and flexible customization services to meet the needs of different users.
If you have any question, please feel free to contact us:

  • Name: Dawn Zeng (Director)
  • E-mail address: sales@himaxelectronics.com
Himax Decorative figure

A team headed by business chemist Prof. Stephan von Delft from the University of Münster has concluded that China will be the first country worldwide to become independent of the need to mine the raw materials that are essential for custom lithium battery pack. They have also established that this development could be accelerated in all the regions they looked at—including Europe and the U.S.

With the increase in the production of batteries for electric vehicles, demand is also rising for the necessary raw materials. In view of risks to the supply chain, environmental problems and precarious working conditions which are all associated with the mining and transportation of these materials, the recycling of battery materials has become an important issue in research, politics and industry.

Prof. Stephan von Delft from the University of Münster heads a team of researchers from the fields of science and the automotive and battery industries who have therefore been investigating when the demand for the three most important raw materials for batteries—lithium, cobalt and nickel—can be met entirely through recycling in Europe, the U.S. and China; in other words, when a completely circular economy will be possible in these regions. The team’s conclusion is that China will achieve this first, followed by Europe and the U.S.

In detail, the results published in Resources, Conservation and Recycling show that China is expected to be able to employ recycling to meet its own demand for primary lithium for electric vehicles, obtained through mining, from 2059 onwards; in Europe and the U.S., this will not happen until after 2070. As far as cobalt is concerned, recycling is expected to ensure that China will be able to meet its needs after 2045, at the earliest; in Europe this will happen in 2052 and in the U.S. not until 2056. As regards nickel: China can probably meet demand through recycling in 2046 at the earliest, with Europe following in 2058 and the U.S. from 2064 onwards.

Himax - 12V 6Ah Liofepo4 Custom Lithium Battery Pack

Although earlier research looked at the supply of recycled raw materials for batteries and the demand for them, it had not so far been clear when complete circularity would be achieved, with supply and demand being equal (“break-even point”). The team of researchers also looked at the question of whether there are any possibilities of achieving equilibrium sooner than is predicted by current developments.

“Yes, there are,” says Stephan von Delft. “Our research shows that, in particular, a faster rate of electrification in the automotive industry, as is currently being discussed in the EU, will play a role in the process. The reason is that the faster electric vehicles spread throughout the automotive market, the sooner there will be sufficient quantities of batteries available for recycling.”

As Ph.D. student Jannis Wesselkämper adds, “The demand for raw materials could also be met much earlier by recycling as a result of a reduction in custom lithium battery pack size and by avoiding a so-called ‘second life’ for batteries—for example as stationary storage units for solar power.”

The researchers made use of a so-called dynamic material flow analysis to calculate both future demand and the recyclable raw materials then available. The data basis the team used consisted of data from current research work and market forecasts regarding developments in custom lithium battery pack production and sales and the associated demand for raw materials.

More information: Jannis Wesselkämper et al, A battery value chain independent of primary raw materials: Towards circularity in China, Europe and the US, Resources, Conservation and Recycling (2023). DOI: 10.1016/j.resconrec.2023.107218

Provided by University of Münster

If you have any question, please feel free to contact us:

  • Name: Dawn Zeng (Director)
  • E-mail address: sales@himaxelectronics.com
Himax Lithium Ion Battery 6Ah

The price of a custom lithium battery pack is mainly composed of three major components: battery cell, PCM, and casing. At the same time, due to the current of the electrical appliances, the material of the connecting piece between the cells (conventional nickel sheet, formed nickel sheet, copper-nickel composite sheet, jumper sheet, etc.) or selection, different connectors (such as Special plugs, ranging from tens to thousands of dollars) may also have a greater impact on the cost. In addition, different PACK manufacturing processes will also affect the cost.


  1. Battery cell selection

Depending on the cathode material, custom lithium battery pack include lithium manganate (3.6V), lithium cobalt oxide (3.7V/3.8V), lithium nickel cobalt manganate (commonly known as ternary, 3.6V), and lithium iron phosphate (3.2V). , lithium titanate (2.3V/2.4V) and other battery cores of various material systems. Batteries made of different materials have different voltage platforms, safety factors, number of cycles, energy density, operating temperatures, etc.


  1. Requirements and design of  custom lithium battery pack PCM

PCM design can be divided into: basic protection, communication, BMS

Basic protection: Basic protection includes overcharge, over-discharge, over-current and short-circuit protection. Over-temperature protection can be added according to product needs.

Communication: Communication protocols can be divided into I2C, RS485, RS232, CANBUS, HDQ, SMBUS, etc. There is also a simple power display, which can be indicated by a power meter using LED.

BMS: Mainly to intelligently manage and maintain each battery unit, prevent the battery from overcharging and over-discharging, extend the service life of the battery, and monitor the status of the battery. Its main functions include: real-time monitoring of battery physical parameters; battery status estimation; online diagnosis and early warning; charge, discharge and precharge control; equalization management and thermal management, etc. Subsystems are mostly used in electric vehicle batteries.

Himax battery manufacturer live pictures-Custom Lithium Battery Pack


  1. Requirements and design of lithium battery pack casing

What kind of outer shell packaging form is used mainly depends on the specific needs of the customer’s product. It can be mainly divided into: PVC heat shrink film, plastic shell, metal shell

PVC heat shrink film: generally suitable for battery packs with a small number of cells in series and in parallel and a light overall weight. However, for battery packs with a relatively large overall weight, fixed brackets can be added between the cells, and fiberglass boards are added to the periphery for protection, and then PVC heat sealing is used. PVC heat shrink film is also the most economical packaging method.


Plastic case: Mainly because after different battery packs are finalized, the cases involved may need to be molded. The mold cost is a large expense. If the product is not finalized in the early stage of development, a prototype shell can be used for proofing. Different material and process requirements for the shell will also affect the cost.


Metal casel: The metal case is the same as the plastic case. Before the product is finalized or the quantity demand is not large, it is recommended to use sheet metal sample preparation, which mainly shortens the sample preparation and delivery time. If the order quantity is large, it is recommended to open a mold. There are waterproof level requirements for metal casings, which will also greatly affect the cost. Metal casings made of special materials (such as titanium alloy, etc.) will also increase the cost.


At the same time, due to different product technical difficulty, procurement volume, and defective rate requirements, lithium battery prices will vary greatly!

If you have any question, please feel free to contact us:

  • Name: Dawn Zeng (Director)
  • E-mail address: sales@himaxelectronics.com
Himax Slider Pictures - Lifepo4 12v 100Ah

With the increase in solar panels on houses and plug-in cars patrolling the roads, custom lithium battery pack is going to be ever more important in the coming years.

Technology has shown the way to harnessing power from the sun and other sources in nature, but what to do with that power once harvested? Researchers and students from Chico State are going to be among a group coming up with a better battery.

Most parts of California, for example, enjoy more than 280 days of sunshine per year—a real bounty for capturing solar energy. However, the substantial challenge is storing that power for use at night or on overcast days.

Members of Chico State’s faculty will work to overcome this problem and they have money to help them do it—a three-year,$2.25 million grant from the federal Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity and the Office of Basic Energy Services. The university will receive half of that money—funding a collaborative research project to maximize the storage capacity of low-cost batteries.

San Jose State and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory are the other participants in the project and will receive the other half of the funding.

Monica So, principal investigator and associate professor in Chico State’s Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, joins Kathleen Meehan, co-principal investigator and professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, to help coordinate this project. The other principal investigators involved are Philip Dirlam from San Jose State and Liwen Wan from Lawrence Livermore.

The center of this effort is the lithium-sulfur battery—much like a watch battery—that is lighter that its current “king of the hill” model, the lithium ion unit.

“We’re actually trying to enhance the storage cap of lithium-sulfur batteries. They’re potentially a safer alternative to custom lithium battery pack and the storage capacity is higher,” So explained. “We’re trying to enhance performance by modifying the materials that make up certain components.”

Batteries typically have two electrodes. “We’re trying to create materials to improve the anode, then we’re going to put them in a lithium-sulfur coin cell”—about the diameter of a dime.

That won’t be the final size the researchers will strive to create.

Himax Decorative figure Custom Lithium Battery Pack

“The overall size of prototype is like a watch battery, which we can scale up to a car battery, storing energy generated at a house or solar farm,” Meehan said.

“The weight and size will be smaller than what’s needed for a lithium-ion battery. We will halve its size. That will allow the battery to drive its car longer because it won’t need as much to make the wheels move” due to its reduced weight.

It’s no easy undertaking and the process is slow, Meehan said.

“The time to market hasn’t changed that much over the decades,” she said. “With lithium-sulfur batteries, we expect about 10 years to have some on the market. Historically, it has taken 20 years to move something from advanced research to manufacture.

“That length of time hasn’t moved that much. Nothing ever goes from small scale to large scale completely smoothly.”

The project began in August. The grant will enable Chico State and San Jose State to purchase state-of-the-art equipment, provide research materials and supplies to be used in the development and characterization of the lithium-sulfur batteries and fund travel to conferences where the investigators and participants can discuss their research findings with other researchers in the field.

“Ideally, in three years we’ll have a working prototype,” So said.

Principal investigators will also contribute the research training and professional development of the 22 students and two postdoctoral scholars, creating a local pool of talented scientists and engineers who can continue to develop technologies for a more sustainable energy future, a Chico State press release said.

So said she and Meehan found out about the grant opportunity in January and had four months to formulate a proposal. They submitted the proposal to the Department of Energy in May.

Federal officials will make sure the three institutions involved are making good use of the funds.

“The DOE does care about deliverables and the quality of work. I just met with them two weeks ago,” So said. “They do care that we make progress on this, and that we publish academic papers.

“They also expect we’ll recruit and retain participants—22 students from Butte County and Santa Clara County, plus two early-career scientists. They’ll track development.”

She added that the investigators will recruit undergraduate students from Butte College and other area community colleges.

Meehan said increasing the ranks of groups not historically represented in electrical engineering and chemistry is also an objective.

“One of our goals is to recruit people who are typically not in this discipline—women, Latinos, African-Americans and Native Americans,” she said.

Referring to herself and So, as females, Meehan said,”We’re outliers in our field—there are only about 10% of women in electrical enginnering. Blacks make up about 3%. So it doesn’t match the general population.

“The more we can pull in, it would be good. It creates a fuller idea of what a product should be and how we should be doing our research.”

Having more underrepresented groups also makes products like improved batteries more widely available in the long run, as there will be a larger group offering suggestions on how to make the custom lithium battery pack better. The grant is part of a $70 million package through the Department of Energy’s RENEW Initiative, which aims to support research by historically underrepresented groups in science, technology, engineering and mathematics.

“They can contribute more fully to the development, and also make sure the product serves as many people as possible,” Meehan said.

(c)2023 Chico Enterprise-Record, Calif Distributed by Tribune Content Agency, LLC.

If you have any question, please feel free to contact us:

  • Name: Dawn Zeng (Director)
  • E-mail address: sales@himaxelectronics.com

Let’s talk about some details of the tin-based tandem electrocatalyst for the synthesis of ethanol via CO₂ reduction and li ion customized battery manufacturing process.

The electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) into various multi-carbon products is highly desirable, as it could help to easily produce useful chemicals for a wide range of applications. Most existing catalysts to facilitate CO2 reduction are based on copper (Cu), yet the processes underpinning their action remain poorly understood.

Researchers at the Chinese Academy of Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, and other institutes in China have recently set out to design more efficient Cu-free electrochemical catalysts for the reduction of CO2 Their paper, published in Nature Energy, introduces a new catalyst based on Tin (Sn), which was found to reduce CO2 to ethanol (CH3CH2OH) with a selectivity of 80%.

“The discovery of C-C coupling over the Sn1-O3G catalyst was not accidental, but instead built on our earlier works on understanding the CO2RR behavior of transition metal single-atom catalysts,” Prof. Bin Liu, co-author of the paper, told Tech Xplore.

“Specifically, we conducted preliminary experiments involving structural and electrochemical characterizations of various Sn-based CO2RR catalysts, including metallic Sn nanoparticles, SnS2 nanosheets, SnS2 on nitrogen-doped graphene, single Sn atoms on nitrogen-doped graphene (Sn-4N) and single Sn atoms on O-rich graphene (Sn1-O3G).”

In their preliminary experiments, the researchers found that both Sn1-4N and Sn1-O3G catalysts could reduce CO2 to CO with KHCO3, as a proton donor in a CO2RR solution. However, these catalysts displayed different behavior in the presence of the acid formate, with only Sn1-O3G ultimately producing ethanol.

Himax - decorating image-Li Ion Customized Battery Manufacturing

“These observations led us to believe that the difference in CO2RR between the Sn1-4N and Sn1-3OG catalysts could result from the different coordination environments of Sn,” Prof. Liu said. “Thereafter, we focused our efforts on understanding the C-C coupling mechanism on O-coordinated Sn catalytic sites and constructed a tandem catalyst to realize selective CO2RR to ethanol.”

Prof. Liu and his colleagues fabricated their new Sn-based electrocatalyst by eliciting a solvothermal reaction between SnBr2 and thiourea on a three-dimensional (3D) carbon foam. They subsequently examined their catalyst to characterize its structure.

Their examinations suggest that their catalyst is made up of SnS2 nanosheets and atomically dispersed Sn atoms. These components are coordinated on the 3D O-rich carbon by binding with three O atoms (Sn1-O3G).

“The electrochemical performance of the SnS2/Sn1-O3G catalyst for CO2RR was evaluated using chronoamperometry in an H-type cell containing CO2-saturated 0.5-M KHCO3,” Prof. Liu said. “Our catalyst can reproducibly yield ethanol with a Faradaic efficiency (FE) of up to 82.5% at -0.9 VRHE and a geometric current density of 17.8 mA cm–2. Additionally, the FE for ethanol production could be maintained at above 70% over the potential window from -0.6 to -1.1 VRHE.”

In initial evaluations, the catalyst developed by the researchers achieved highly promising results, successfully producing ethanol from a CO2RR solution with a high selectivity. In addition, the catalyst was found to be stable, maintaining 97% of its initial activity after 100 h of operation.

“The dual active centers of Sn and O atoms in Sn1-O3G serve to adsorb different C-based intermediates, which effectively lowers the C-C coupling energy between *CO(OH) and *CHO,” Prof. Liu explained. “Our tandem catalyst enables a formyl-bicarbonate coupling pathway, which not only provides a platform for C-C bond formation during ethanol synthesis and overcomes the restrictions of Cu-based catalysts but also offers a strategy for manipulating CO2 reduction pathways towards desired products.”

The recent work by this team of researchers introduces an alternative Cu-free catalyst for eliciting the C-C bond formation and enabling the reduction of CO2 to ethanol. In the future, their proposed approach could be used to produce ethanol more reliably and could potentially also be applied to the synthesis of other desired chemical products via the CO2 reduction reaction.

“The search for more efficient catalysts with dual active sites should be pursued through high-throughput experiments and theoretical calculations,” Prof. Liu added. “The rate and selectivity of a catalytic reaction are also closely related to the coverage of reaction intermediates on the catalyst‘s surface.

“Therefore, an in-depth study of factors that affect the residence time of intermediates, such as the pore structure of the support for the Sn1-O3G dual-active sites, would help to deepen understanding of the C-C coupling process. We envisage that tandem catalysis based on the concept of dual-active sites could be extendable to C-X (X = N or S) coupling to prepare other chemicals, such as urea and alanine.”

More information: Jie Ding et al, A tin-based tandem electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction to ethanol with 80% selectivity, Nature Energy (2023). DOI: 10.1038/s41560-023-01389-3

If you have any question, please feel free to contact us:

  • Name: Dawn Zeng (Director)
  • E-mail address: sales@himaxelectronics.com