Coulombic Efficiency: Research Gate

We seldom stress about buying a new phone every few years. We want the new technology. Hence with phones, lithium-ion battery aging is hardly an issue. It is, however, a major factor with an electric vehicle. Those lithium batteries can cost as much as a small fossil-fueled car pumping out pollution.

Lithium-Ion Battery Aging

Concept Electric Car: NREL: Public Domain

It follows that scientists are constantly on the prowl to retard lithium-ion battery aging. Although electric car batteries should last for twenty years, the design life of the vehicle is fifty.

Thus, it would be really nice if the batteries lasted as long. Researchers at Dalhousie University in Halifax think the answer lies in coulombic efficiency.

Coulombic Efficiency and Lithium-Ion Battery Aging

You can read about faradaic efficiency, faradaic yield, current efficiency, and coulombic efficiency here because they are all the same thing. In headline terms, they refer to the ability of a battery to sustain itself over time. We express this as a ratio using the formula Q-Out over Q-In. Q-out is the charge that exits the battery during discharge. Q-in is the amount of charge that enters it during charging. The result is inevitably less than one due to fundamental battery inefficiencies.

The Fundamental Inefficiency of Lithium Ion Batteries

Lithium-Ion Battery Aging

Lithium Research: Dept. of Energy: Public Domain

When we charge a lithium-ion battery, lithium moves across to the graphite, negative anode and lodges there. As we draw the current out, it theoretically all moves back to the cathode.

In practice, a small amount of lithium compound remains on the anode as a thin film. Every time we recharge the battery, this grows thicker. Eventually the lithium can no longer interact with the graphite.

Ongoing Research into Lithium-Ion Battery Aging

Scientists are on the hunt to retard the deterioration of lithium ion batteries. Some say this is the ‘holy grail’ of green energy. The key appears to be putting additives in the electrolyte. However nothing is perfect. Therefore a degree of lithium-ion battery aging will likely be with us forever.

NI-MH-Battery-Pack

NI-MH-Battery-Pack

Nickel metal hydride battery (Commonly abbreviated to “Nimh battery”) has dominated the market today. This is because the battery chemistry is advanced in performance, safety, the cycle of life, and other parameters. In addition to that, manufacturers are working to improve the cell. The cell is designed to be used on electronic products that consider run time. As a result of this, it is used in a wide range of applications. Before you buy a cell, it is essential to not some of the useful factors. Let us see safety, usage, and differences of nickel-metal hydride.

Are NiMh Batteries Safe?

Generally, batteries are safe to buy you need to take precautions. Nimh is a nontoxic cell to human beings but harmful to other living things such as plants. However, the main problem is electrolytes. When exposing to extreme temperatures, electrolytes react with materials to create gas.

How to Keep NiMh Battery Safe?

Proper Charging

Proper charging means fully charging a cell according to the manufacturer’s rule. You can determine the completely charged battery by examining charge currents as well as recording charge time. Moreover, you must charge a battery at a moderate temperature. Extreme temperatures can cause an internal circuit. This produces heat thus makes the cell to be unsafe. You can buy a battery charger that measures temperatures. It will alert you when the temperatures rise.

Proper Storage

Cells are not stored inside a device. Remove the battery from the equipment and put it in the original package. In addition to that, store it in a cool dry place to avoid heat. Also, cells should not be put in contact, ensure they are separated.

Ventilation

It is recommended to ventilate the room for charging cells. Electrolytes are produced during charging and they emit hydrogen. The gas colorless and odorless hence you cannot recognize. The downside of hydrogen is that it is highly explosive. It mixes with oxygen in the air when produced. Since hydrogen is lighter than oxygen, it accumulates above oxygen. For this reason, it can result in a massive explosion in the room. On top of that, hydrogen can cause eye and skin problems.

Easy Safety Tips To Follow

  • Cells should always keep devices away from children. This includes wrist watches, remote controls, thermometers, cards, and other products that have batteries.
  • Do not expose lose batteries to pets and small children. Keep them away from access.
  • Create awareness by teaching friends and parents on keeping cells away.
  • If your child has swallowed a cell, run to the hospital, and do not give the child anything to drink.

What are NiMh Batteries Used For?

Mobile Phones

Nickel metal hydride has a greater density. The cell is designed to be a slim geometry. This gives an energy density of about 60Wh/kg. The cell takes up to 300 life cycles. Ways to increase cycles include draining and recharging the device for about four times.

Laptops

Laptops use several types of cells including nickel-metal hydride. The batteries work well in portable computers and last longer, unlike nickel-cadmium. If you want to increase the life cycle of nickel-metal hydride on a laptop, you should discharge more often.

Computers

Computers that use NiMH last longer. Also, they deliver great performance.

Digital Cameras

A good digital camera should work for long before it drains. Before the introduction of lithium-ion, most digital cameras used Nimh and still use.

What is the Difference Between A NiMh Battery and A Lithium-ion Battery?

Charge Cycles

The charge cycle is referred to as the charging and discharging process of a rechargeable battery. The lithium-ion battery has a powerful ability to perform longer charge cycles compared to nickel-metal hydride. This parameter contributes to the high cost of lithium-ion batteries. There are ways you can do to increase life cycles. For example, reducing the battery temperature, choose the right termination charge, prevent high charge, and discharge.

Voltages

Voltage is the characteristic of a cell. It is examined through chemical reactions, polarization, and components of a battery. The nominal voltage of a lithium-ion is about 3.70V. On the contrary, nickel-metal hydride operates at a nominal voltage of 1.2V in each cell. A high nominal voltage is great because it increases watt-hours.

High Power

Lithium-ion battery operates at higher voltage hence it delivers more power compared to nickel-metal hydride. NiMH produces has lower voltages that can support high power.

Chargers

Nickel metal hydride and lithium-ion need specific chargers. These chargers have different types of electronics. You cannot use a different charger on li-ion because it can result in accidents. Manufacturers have designed chargers that show currents, voltages as well as charge time. Also, it examines the rate of charging and cuts the process in case of issues. Conversely, nickel-metal hydride chargers do not come with safety parameters.

Size

Lithium-ion is a more advanced cell with less weight than most battery technology. Nickel metal hydride is among the heavy cells. Weight is a crucial factor to consider when it comes to transportation. Lithium-ion can be moved from one place to another without using much energy.

Dangerous

Nickel metal hydride is not as dangerous as lithium-ion. Nickel metal hydride does not cause a fire when exposed to oxygen. Lithium-ion explodes when exposed to oxygen. Therefore, it requires a protection circuit to guarantee safety.

Price

The most important thing when you buy a cell is checking the price of a product. The cost of lithium-ion is almost three times s more of other batteries. Nickel metal hydride is affordable. The rise of demand for cells in consumer electronics will make the price of lithium to go down.

Top Nimh Battery Manufacturers Recommend

Himax was founded in 2002 and started to produce nickel-metal hydride batteries, and successfully developed high power and Low-self discharge NiMH batteries. Now Himax Nimh batteries are widely used in applications that require higher power, such as radio control cars, toys, power tools (e.g. electric drill, saws, angle grinders, etc.), and some medical devices in the global market.

UPS-Backup-Battery

Power failures do occur at times in our places of residents, businesses, and workplaces. This power failure can last for an extended period. And as we know, without electricity, all our work or pleasure will stop. Therefore, there is the need to have backup systems so that our work is protected from damage or data loss.

Also, backup systems help us minimize the financial loss caused by blackouts, low voltages, and other power supply problems.

Therefore, let us learn one excellent backup system known as an Uninterruptible power supply (UPS).

UPS-Backup-Battery

What is the UPS Backup Battery?

An Uninterruptible power supply (UPS) is also known as a battery backup, is an electronic device that provides emergency power when your regular power supply fails. UPS provides instant protection from input power interruptions by giving out the stored energy in batteries, robust capacitors, and flywheels.

Instant loss of power and power surges are two leading causes of damage to your devices. Thus, UPS protects hardware components of machines such as computers, data centers, telecommunication equipment, and all other electrical equipment. Power disruption can cause damage, fatalities, severe business disruption, or data loss.

UPS comes in different sizes, ranging from those meant to protect one computer without a monitor to those large units used to power entire data centers or buildings. Cheap power strips can protect your electrical devices but do not offer protection against drops in voltage, brownouts, blackouts, and other power supply problems.

Let us take, for instance; you are dealing with a project at home on your laptop with it plugged into an appropriate surge protection strip. You are busy with your work, and then suddenly, there is a power blackout. Although all the devices go off, your work won’t be interrupted since the laptop has a battery. This offers time to save your work then shut down your computer.

But for desktop computers, it is a different case. If you worked on your project on a desktop computer during the outage, then the system goes off when power is interrupted. This leads to loss of unsaved work and also gives your computer a lot of stress. UPS now plays its role here. It offers a window of time to save your work then shut the computer down in the right way.

You can also work for the entire period of interruption using the power stored in the UPS. Even in your absence, many UPS units come with software that enables them to detect a power outage and enables the computer to shut down automatically.

Main Types Of UPS Units

There are three main types of UPS units, namely:

A standby UPS unit – This type of battery backup charges its battery and then waits for the main power to be interrupted. When there is a power outage, the Standby UPS switches to the battery backup. It can support the device for a period of between 20-100 milliseconds, which is within the acceptable tolerance threshold.

A Line-Interactive UPS unit has the same design as a standby UPS unit, but a special transformer is included. This particular transformer makes this type of UPS better in dealing with brownouts and power surges. If you are residing in an area frequently affected by brownouts, this is the device to purchase.

An online UPS unit – this is the most expensive type of UPS. It completely separates the device attached to it from the wall power. There is never a single millisecond of power interruption with this backup system when there is power loss. The device is effectively an electronic firewall between your devices and the world, scrubbing and stabilizing all the electricity your devices are exposed to.

Can UPS Work Without the Battery?

UPS works mostly on batteries. Most UPS runs on batteries, and they cannot operate on dead or missing batteries. But in case you have the one that runs without batteries, then you will get the same voltage regulation and surge as you will be working with batteries.

Without batteries, the UPS will offer minimal protection, and even only the UPS’s surge side will work. You will not get line conditioning without a well-functioning battery. It is good to always have healthy batteries in your UPS for maximum protection of your hardware devices.

How do You Pick the Right UPS Backup Battery?

Picking the right battery for your home or device is always crucial. But these are the factors to consider when purchasing a UPS battery;

Durability

When choosing your UPS batteries, you should consider the batteries that can last for an extended period. Batteries that last for a short period are costly because you will require frequent replacements of your battery.

Size

Know the size of the battery that your UPS backup system requires. Do not purchase before checking because you can end up purchasing over-sized or under-sized batteries.

Appliances To Be Protected

It is always excellent to know the number and size of the appliances you want to protect using your UPS. If you are using the UPS in your computer, only then pick the small units UPS, but if used to support the entire building or home, you will need to have UPS with higher units.

Cost

Cost always plays a crucial role in the purchase of any product. It is good to purchase batteries that will not affect your budget. But the price should not be considered so much that the quality is left out. What benefit will you get if you purchase a battery at a lower price but dies after a few days? You will get a significant loss from cheaper batteries.

Type Of UPS

There are three main types of UPS discussed above. They have different power consumption rates. Therefore, it is good to know the type of UPS’s power consumption rate that you are currently using.

Conclusion

It is said that preventing an accident before it happens is wise. Therefore, it is crucial to protect your devices before becoming a victim of damages or data loss. Install a UPS in your workplace, home, or business, and get the best results. Always ensure that your UPS has healthy and working batteries. (Article cited: large.net)

NI-MH-Battery-Pack

Introduction

Nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries are an improvement from nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries, especially as they replace cadmium (Cd) with a metal that can absorb hydrogen.

NiMH can provide higher capacity than NiCd batteries, have less obvious memory effect, and be more environmentally friendly without the toxic cadmium.

NI-MH-Battery-Pack

What is a memory effect?

The memory effect is a phenomenon that occurs when the battery contents crystallize over time and use. This generally occurs in NiCd batteries, less in NiMH batteries, and not at all with lithium batteries. It is generally believed that low-voltage NiMH batteries have no memory effect while both high-voltage NiMH and NiCd batteries have this memory effect.

The memory effect is caused by the repeated partial charging and discharging of the battery. If a Ni-MH battery is used for 40% and then charged to 80%, the battery will “remember” this and will temporarily reduce its capacity, resulting in a shortened use time.

How do I avoid the memory effect on NiMH batteries?

To prevent this memory effect, it is recommended to recharge the batteries after use or discharge them on a charger with a discharge function. Recharging a battery that is still charged will produce a memory effect.

To fully discharge the battery, the battery must be placed in standby mode for about 24 hours. After it is fully discharged, it can be fully charged. After so many cycles, the battery capacity can be restored unless the battery is damaged.

In general, to avoid the memory effect, it is recommended that consumers choose nickel-metal hydride batteries or lithium batteries.

If you want to know more about NiMH batteries, or other related information. HiMax is mainly engaged at NiMH batteries and lithium batteries, please feel free to contact us via email: sales6@himaxelectronics.com

LiFePo4 battery for solar street light

LiFePo4 battery for solar street light

Lithium battery VS Lead-Acid

LiFePO4 Battery VS Lead-acid Battery

Flexibility

Durability

Accessibility

Efficiency

Why do we recommend LiFePO4 (LFP) batteries for solar street light?

Lithium iron battery parameters

The systems using AGM batteries require replacement once a year to ensure reliability. Generally, the labor cost of replacing AGM batteries exceeds the cost of the product itself, especially in Australia, Europe, North America and other places. The risks and hazards of frequent battery replacement cannot be ignored.

Fast-charging

According to the Physorg website, researchers at Northwestern University have developed an electrode for lithium-ion batteries that allows the battery to retain 10 times more power than the prior art, and the battery with the new electrode can be fast charging, increasing by 10 Double rates.

Battery capacity and fast charging are two major battery limitations. The capacity is limited by the charge density, which is how much lithium ions the two poles of the battery can hold. Fast charging is limited by the rate at which lithium ions reach the negative electrode from the electrolyte.

The negative electrode of the existing lithium battery is formed by stacking a carbon-based graphene sheet layer, and one lithium atom needs to be adapted to 6 carbon atoms. In order to increase the amount of electricity stored, scientists have tried to use silicon instead of carbon so that silicon can be adapted to more lithium, reaching 4 lithium atoms corresponding to 1 silicon atom.

However, silicon can significantly expand and shrink during charging, causing rapid breakdown and loss of charge capacity. The shape of the graphene sheet also limits the charging rate of the battery. Although they are only one carbon atom thick, they are very long. Since it takes a long time for lithium to move into the middle of the graphene sheet, the phenomenon of ion “traffic jam” occurs at the edge of the graphene sheet.

Now, the research team has solved the above problems by combining two technologies. First, in order to stabilize the silicon to maintain the maximum charge capacity, they added silicon clusters between the graphene sheets, and the elasticity of the graphene sheets was used to match the change in the number of silicon atoms in the battery, so that a large number of lithium atoms were stored in the electrodes. The addition of silicon clusters allows for higher energy densities and also reduces the loss of charge capacity due to silicon expansion and shrinkage, which is the best of both worlds.

The chemical oxidation process is used to fabricate micropores from 10 nm to 20 nm on graphene sheets, which are called “face defects”, so lithium ions will reach the negative electrode along with this shortcut and will be stored in the negative electrode by reacting with silicon. This will reduce the battery charging time by a factor of 10.

The new technology can extend the charging life of lithium-ion batteries by 10 times. Even after 150 cycles of charging and discharging, the battery energy efficiency is still five times that of lithium-ion batteries on the existing market. And the technology is expected to enter the market in the next three to five years.

LiFepo4-battery-pack

The positive electrode of lithium-ion batteries is lithium iron phosphate material, which has great advantages in safety performance and cycle life. These are one of the most important technical indicators of power battery. Lifepo4 battery with 1C charging and discharging cycle life can be achieved 2000 times, the puncture does not explode, it is not easy to burn and explode when overcharged. Lithium iron phosphate cathode materials make large-capacity lithium-ion batteries easier to use in series.

Lithium iron phosphate as cathode material

Lifepo4 battery refers to a lithium-ion battery using lithium iron phosphate as a positive electrode material. The positive electrode materials of lithium-ion batteries mainly include lithium cobaltate, lithium manganate, lithium nickelate, ternary materials, lithium iron phosphate, and the like. Among them, lithium cobaltate is the positive electrode material used in most lithium-ion batteries. In principle, lithium iron phosphate is also an embedding and deintercalation process. This principle is identical to lithium cobaltate and lithium manganate.

 lifepo4 battery advantages

1. High charging and discharging efficiency

Lifepo4 battery is a lithium-ion secondary battery. One main purpose is for power batteries. It has great advantages over NI-MH and Ni-Cd batteries. Lifepo4 battery has high charge and discharges efficiency, and the charge and discharge efficiency can reach over 90% under the condition of discharge, while the lead-acid battery is about 80%.

2. lifepo4 battery high safety performance

The P-O bond in the lithium iron phosphate crystal is stable and difficult to decompose, and does not collapse or heat like a lithium cobaltate or form a strong oxidizing substance even at a high temperature or overcharge, and thus has good safety.

It has been reported that in the actual operation, a small part of the sample was found to have a burning phenomenon in the acupuncture or short-circuit test, but there was no explosion event. In the overcharge experiment, a high-voltage charge that was several times higher than the self-discharge voltage was used, and it was found that there was still an Explosion phenomenon. Nevertheless, its overcharge safety has been greatly improved compared to the ordinary liquid electrolyte lithium cobalt oxide battery.

3. Lifepo4 battery long cycle life

Lifepo4 battery refers to a lithium-ion battery using lithium iron phosphate as a positive electrode material.

The long-life lead-acid battery has a cycle life of about 300 times, and the highest is 500 times. The lithium iron phosphate power battery has a cycle life of more than 2000 times, and the standard charge (5-hour rate) can be used up to 2000 times.

The same quality lead-acid battery is “new half-year, old half-year, maintenance and maintenance for half a year”, up to 1~1.5 years, and the lifepo4 battery is used under the same conditions, the theoretical life will reach 7~8 years.

Considering comprehensively, the performance price ratio is theoretically more than four times that of lead-acid batteries. High-current discharge can be quickly charged and discharged with high current 2C. Under the special charger, the battery can be fully charged within 1.5 minutes of 1.5C charging, and the starting current can reach 2C, but the lead-acid battery has no such performance.

LiFepo4-battery-pack

4. Good temperature performance

The peak temperature of lithium iron phosphate can reach 350 ° C -500 ° C while lithium manganate and lithium cobaltate are only around 200 ° C. Wide operating temperature range (-20C–+75C), with high-temperature resistance, lithium iron phosphate electric heating peak can reach 350 °C-500 °C, while lithium manganate and lithium cobalt oxide only at 200 °C.

5. Lifepo4 battery High capacity

It has a larger capacity than ordinary batteries (lead-acid, etc.). The monomer capacity is 5AH-1000AH.

6. No memory effect

Rechargeable batteries work under conditions that are often not fully discharged, and the capacity will quickly fall below the rated capacity. This phenomenon is called the memory effect. Memory like nickel-metal hydride and nickel-cadmium batteries, but the lifepo4 battery does not have this phenomenon, no matter what state the battery is in, it can be used with the charge, no need to discharge and recharge.

3.2v-100ah-lifepo4-battery

7. Lightweight of lifepo4 battery

The lifepo4 battery of the same specification capacity is 2/3 of the volume of the lead-acid battery, and the weight is 1/3 of the lead-acid battery.

8. Lifepo4 batteries are environmentally friendly

The battery is generally considered to be free of any heavy metals and rare metals (Ni-MH batteries require rare metals), non-toxic (SGS certified), non-polluting, in line with European RoHS regulations, is an absolute green battery certificate.

Therefore, the reason why lithium batteries are favored by the industry is mainly environmental considerations. Therefore, the battery has been included in the “863” national high-tech development plan during the “Tenth Five-Year Plan” period and has become national key support and encouragement development project.

With China’s accession to the WTO, the export volume of electric bicycles in China will increase rapidly, and electric bicycles entering Europe and the United States have been required to be equipped with non-polluting batteries.

The performance of the lithium-ion battery depends mainly on the positive and negative materials. Lithium iron phosphate is a lithium battery material that has only appeared in recent years. Its safety performance and cycle life are incomparable to other materials. The most important technical indicators of the battery.

Lifepo4 battery has the advantages of non-toxic, non-polluting, good safety performance, a wide range of raw materials, low prices, and long life. It is an ideal cathode material for a new generation of lithium-ion batteries.

Lithium-Battery-Shipping

Lithium-Battery-Shipping

Nowadays, lithium battery is widely used in various industries due to its high discharge rate, rechargeable and pollution-free. With the globalization of economy and trade, the demand of lithium battery in transportation is increasing. How to transport lithium battery correctly is also an important problem that cannot be ignored by lithium battery manufacturers.

What shipping certification does a lithium battery need to pass?

Lithium ion batteries are usually considered as dangerous goods in transportation, so they need to pass multiple shipping certifications to reduce the possibility of accidents. The following is a description of the certifications that may be required to transport lithium batteries.

UN/DOT

UN / DOT is a standard for transportation of goods formulated by the U.S. Department of transportation, which has clear provisions on the transportation standard for lithium batteries. Among them, UN38.3 is a regulation for lithium batteries for air transportation. This test standard covers eight different tests, all of which focus on the hazards of lithium batteries in transportation. In recent years, UN / DOT has passed a new law to prohibit lithium batteries from being installed on passenger aircraft. Therefore, it is predicted that air transportation of lithium batteries may be banned in the future.

IATA (International Air Transport Association)

Unlike other laws and regulations, IATA does not carry out certification test on specific goods transported. IATA only certifies the shipper of the goods to ensure that the shipper understands the relevant requirements of lithium battery transportation. At the same time, the certified shipper still needs to re certify the qualification every year.

IEC (The International Electrotechnical Commission)

As a non-profit standard making organization, IEC compiles international standards for electrical, electronic and other related technologies. Its standards involve general, safety and transportation specifications. In the IEC standard, IEC 62281 is dedicated to the transportation of primary or secondary lithium batteries, which aims to ensure the safety of lithium batteries during transportation.

CE Marking

CE mark is a self declaration made by the manufacturer to confirm that the product meets the EU product safety requirements. The CE safety certification of EU is more comprehensive, which can ensure that products can get safety certification almost in the world. However, the CE mark does not apply to products sold in the United States.

ANSI (The American National Standards Institute)

Like IEC, ANSI is a non-profit standards development organization that develops consensus based standards. ANSI C18.2M and ANSI C18.3M provide safety standards for portable rechargeable batteries.

In addition to some of the above certification, there are many professional or non professional certification of lithium battery transportation in the world, which are suitable for different situations of transportation.

Do you use devices with lithium battery on the plane?

On the plane, passengers can normally use mobile phones, computers, cameras and other devices that use lithium batteries (mobile devices should turn on flight mode). However, these devices must be placed in their carry on luggage and pay attention to the safety of electricity during use. Spare lithium-ion batteries, lithium metal batteries and electronic cigarettes, which are easy to generate heat or smoke, must also be carried with them. When carrying with them, passengers should also ensure that these electronic devices will not be accidentally started, damaged or short circuited.

In checked luggage, lithium batteries in operation are prohibited. If there is a lithium battery device in your checked luggage, make sure it is completely closed and does not start automatically, and pack it to prevent damage and short circuit. If it is a lithium-ion battery or a lithium metal battery, it should be protected with the manufacturer’s packaging or adhesive tape, and put in a special bag to prevent the risk of short circuit. If it is a damaged, defective or recalled lithium battery, please do not take it with you. These batteries may cause safety hazards due to overheating or fire, which may be devastating to the aircraft and its passengers.

How do you transport lithium batteries properly?

First of all, before transporting lithium batteries, it is necessary to confirm whether the batteries or consignors have safety certification. According to the requirements of the transporter, test and register the corresponding safety certification, which is the most efficient method for the certification of transport lithium batteries. Some specifications of lithium batteries, transport companies will also require the shipper to sign a dangerous goods contract.

It is also necessary to choose a good transportation company. Because the transportation of lithium batteries is a complicated matter, it is not to pack and mail the batteries directly, so the safety issues in the transportation of lithium batteries must also be considered. Therefore, it is very wise to choose famous express companies such as USPS and UPS to transport lithium batteries. They have comprehensive transportation guidelines for dangerous goods and a considerable number of trained personnel who understand how lithium batteries work and how to handle them safely.

In addition to registration and selection of transportation companies, there are many details to be done in the transportation of lithium batteries. First, lithium batteries weighing more than 35 kg must be approved by the national authorities before shipment. The greater the net weight of lithium batteries, the higher the risk level, and the more strict control is required. Secondly, damaged or defective batteries should not be transported, and batteries should be strictly packaged and labeled with lithium battery shipping products. Finally, used lithium batteries for recycling should not be transported by air unless approved by national authorities and airlines. All these measures are related to the safety of the goods and the life of the transporters, so there can be no negligence.

Under the background of economic and trade globalization, it is an inevitable requirement of the times for lithium battery manufacturers to master the methods of transporting products. How to reduce the possibility of safety accidents as much as possible during transportation is also the preparation that manufacturers and transportation companies must make. Hope you can find this article helpful.

Thank you for your attention!

Lithium-battery-not-allow-on-airplane

Lithium-battery-not-allow-on-airplane

You must be traveling so soon, and most probably, that’s why you have landed into this great piece of information. Do you know what is involved when traveling with devices containing lithium batteries? I bet not! That’s why you are on this.

Well, there are restrictions when we talk about traveling on planes. One of those restrictions involves lithium batteries. They may seem small, but the impact they can have when they cause a fire on board is unimaginable. Lithium batteries can produce dangerous heat levels, cause ignition, short circuit very easy, and cause inextinguishable fires. That’s why renowned aviation authorities, including those in the USA, have banned lithium batteries when traveling.

What Batteries are Not Allowed on Airplanes?

  1. Lithium Batteries for Spare – Both lithium polymer and lithium metal are not allowed on planes both in carry on and checked baggage. Lithium batteries have hit news headlines in recent months. Suppose a single cell was to catch fire because of the dangers associated with thermal runways. There have been viral videos on YouTube involving various gadgets raging from hoverboards to a pair of earphones. These videos showed these gadgets burning into flames. Aviation authorities have banned some of these gadgets from getting into planes, and the recent ban was Samsung note 7 smart-phones from the USA after it was proven to cause fire and explosives. There are cautions if batteries have to get into the plane, and they should be kept strictly separated from other flammable materials.
  2. Spillable Batteries – Also known as car batteries or wet batteries too are not allowed in planes. But you can be let in with such batteries if, for instance, you have a wheelchair or using the battery to charge a scooter. You can be allowed to have the batteries on the plane. However, you are advised to inform the plane staff so that they can lay down the necessary measures to pack the batteries for the safe flight properly.

How Can Lithium Batteries Prevent you From Flying?

It would be good to let you know the limitation that air passengers are set to observe as they go with devices using lithium batteries or when traveling with spare batteries.

Here are some guidelines:

  1. Carry Fewer PEDs – PEDs are the equipment used with lithium batteries as the source of power. Such material includes electronic devices like cameras, mobile phones, laptops, e-readers, and medical devices such as portable oxygen generators. While traveling on planes, you are supposed to have less than fifteen devices with you either in carry on or checked baggage.
  2. Battery Content and Ratings – Every installed battery in a PED MUST not surpass the following: for the lithium metal or lithium alloy batteries; you are not expected to carry any lithium with more than two grams.

For the lithium-ion batteries, they should indicate an hour watt rating of less than 100 Wh.

I know you wonder how about that battery of yours with no Wh rating, you have to calculate it using the formula below to determine the watts hours rating.

Volts* ampere-hours = Watts hours.

If your battery’s capacity is shown in milliamp here hours, you will need to divide the ampere-hours by 1000 before executing the math.

  1. Protection From Damages – For the batteries that might be allowed in the plane and carried in checked baggage, measures should be put in place to prevent any damage and prevent any unintentional fire incidences.
  2. Complete Devices Switch Off – The devices on board using lithium batteries; they must be switched off entirely and not in sleep mode or hibernation.

Traveling and shipping lithium batteries can be complicated, and failure to know the traveling and shipping procedures and mechanisms can make you not travel.

How Do You Travel With Lithium Batteries?

  1. Smart Luggage – Some of the newly made suitcases, are coming with the inbuilt charging system to power up your phone. However relaxed, they may sound; it’s important to remember that many airline rules never allow them on board. These suitcases have built-in lithium batteries. It’s advisable to check your luggage to confirm it has the lithium batteries. Remove them from the luggage and carry them on board with you.
  2. Lithium Spare Batteries – If you honestly need to travel with extra lithium batteries, you need to transport them in carry-on luggage with every battery separately to protect and prevent short circuits. We recommend retaining them in the original package, taping over the exposed terminals.
  3. Electronic Cigarettes and Vape Pens – Although some airline companies still term vape pens as dangerous, need to confirm before with them in case rules, and procedures have changed. Otherwise, electronic cigarettes with lithium batteries are allowed on planes but only on carry-on luggage.
  4. Power Banks and External Chargers – Power banks and external chargers that are met to charge other devices have inbuilt lithium-ion batteries. You are advised to transport them with the same care as you do spare lithium batteries.
  5. Shipping Lithium Batteries– All shipping requirements should comply with aviation authority guidelines. For the cargo composing of lithium battery devices – laptops and phones being shipped and you as a staff you are not sure whether they are separately packed, kindly contact your business representative for further assistance.

Conclusion

Traveling with lithium battery devices can pose such a big challenge on board. They are avoided on planes following the dangers associated with them in case they cause a fire. However, there those that are entirely not allowed while others are allowed. If you have to travel with them, you either have them on the carry on or at checked luggage. Aviation authorities have gone ahead to ban them. For those that are allowed, they should be limited to keep the minimal chances of fire occurrence. Authorities are forced to do this despite planes having extinguisher systems because; a fire caused by lithium-ion batteries is so enormous such that the system has proven not to put it out. Mind your devices with lithium-ion batteries when on planes.

Charge-the-battery-in-a-low-temperature

Charge-the-battery-in-a-low-temperature

I believe everyone knows that due to the structure of cells and the specificity of the chemistry, the battery cannot be charged below the freezing temperature. There are still a lot of companies are advertised as “low-temperature rechargeable“, “low temperature -xx℃ charge” words, Grepow’s low-temperature series battery can also charge in the environment of minus 20 degrees, how is it done? What about charging in a low-temperature environment? In this article, I will tell you how to achieve it.

Why can’t I charge the battery in a low-temperature environment?

Materials of lithium-ion batteries, such as separators and electrolytes, are organic materials with a low melting point. If the temperature is too high, some negative chemical reactions will occur inside the battery, which will seriously affect the battery life and even safety performance.

The key materials of the battery under low-temperature conditions: the conductivity of the positive electrode, the negative electrode, the electrolyte, etc. are reduced, resulting in a decrease in electrical conductivity, which will seriously affect the battery life.

Low-temperature protection is when the temperature is too low, the metal lithium in the battery will deposit, no longer react with the substance, resulting in internal short circuit of the battery, which will cause damage to the battery or cause safety hazard of the battery.

2 ways to charge the battery at freezing temperature

Battery charger self-heating charging

This way is rely on a special charger for heating because it can not be charged normally in a low-temperature environment, so the charger heats the battery till the temperature above the freezing point, and then charge the battery.

This method is more safe and effective, but it takes longer time, because the charger can only perform small-rate discharge heating in a low-temperature environment. Therefore, it will take around 1 to 3 hours to heat up before charging.

Advantages: Able to charge even when the battery is empty

Disadvantages: Longer charging wait time; Rely on a special charger

Condition by BMS / PCM

The battery with BMS / PCM can provide two functions, one is a low-temperature alarm, there will be a warning when the battery charge or discharge below the set value, or the protection function, directly disconnect the discharge to prevent damage to the battery caused by low temperature or accident.

The second type is to start the low-temperature self-heating function through BMS/PCM. The specifications are can be customized. For example, a 5000mAh battery with self-heating function BMS will reserve 1000mAh of power in the battery every time it is discharged. Before the battery charging, the BMS will discharge the reserved power to heat the battery until the rechargeable temperature, then the battery will starting charge automatically. These are all based on the settings of the BMS.

Advantages: The waiting time is short, and the reserved power can be customized according to the needs of the ambient temperature.

Disadvantages: The battery’s operating capacity will be reduced because BMS will reserve a portion of the power for low-temperature charging.