18650 Battery 3.7V

What determines the cycle life of batteries? And, more importantly, how can we extend it? An international research team led by TU Delft has discovered that local disorder in the oxide cathode material increases the number of times  lithium ion battery can be charged and discharged. Their results have been published in Nature.

Rechargeable batteries are a key ingredient of the energy transition, especially now that more and more renewable energy is becoming available. Among the many types of rechargeable batteries, Lithium ion battery pack are among the most powerful and widely used ones.

To electrically connect them, layered oxides are often used as electrodes. However, their atomic structure becomes unstable when the battery is being charged. This ultimately affects the battery cycle life.

To solve this problem, the “Storage of Electrochemical Energy” group at TU Delft teamed up with international researchers. Qidi Wang, the paper’s lead author says, “The layered oxide used as cathode material for Li-ion batteries is neatly ordered. We conducted a structure design study to introduce chemical short-range disorder into this material through an improved synthesis method. As a result, it became more stable during battery use.”

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The improved structural stability almost doubled the battery’s capacity retention after 200 charging/discharging cycles. In addition, this chemical short-range disorder increases the charge transfer in the electrode, resulting in shorter charging times. The team demonstrated these advantages for well-established commercial cathodes such as lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide (NMC811).

The outcomes could lead to a new generation of Li-ion batteries, with a lower manufacturing cost and smaller CO2 footprint per unit of energy stored over its lifetime. The team will next investigate if the same material design principles can be used to build cathodes from raw materials that are less scarce.

“Both cobalt and nickel are so-called critical materials for energy technologies and it would be a good thing to reduce the use these materials in batteries,” says the paper’s senior author, Marnix Wagemaker.

More information: Qidi Wang, Chemical short-range disorder in lithium oxide cathodes, Nature (2024). DOI: 10.1038/s41586-024-07362-8. www.nature.com/articles/s41586-024-07362-8

Journal information: Nature

Provided by Delft University of Technology

LiTypes of Lithium-ion

Charge-recharge cycling of lithium-super-rich iron oxide, a cost-effective and high-capacity cathode for new-generation lithium-ion batteries, can be greatly improved by doping with readily available mineral elements.

The energy capacity and charge-recharge cycling (cyclability) of lithium-iron-oxide, a cost-effective cathode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, is improved by adding small amounts of abundant elements. The development, achieved by researchers at Hokkaido University, Tohoku University, and Nagoya Institute of Technology, is reported in the journal ACS Materials Letters.

Lithium ion batteries have become indispensable in modern life, used in a multitude of applications including mobile phones, electric vehicles, and large power storage systems.

A constant research effort is underway to increase their capacity, efficiency, and sustainability. A major challenge is to reduce the reliance on rare and expensive resources. One approach is to use more efficient and sustainable materials for the battery cathodes, where key electron exchange processes occur.

The researchers worked to improve the performance of cathodes based on a particular lithium-iron-oxide compound. In 2023, they reported a promising cathode material, Li5FeO4, that exhibits a high capacity using iron and oxygen redox reactions. However, its development encountered problems associated with the production of oxygen during charging-recharging cycling.

“We have now found that the cyclability could be significantly enhanced by doping small amounts of abundantly available elements such as aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, and sulfur into the cathode’s crystal structure,” says Associate Professor Hiroaki Kobayashi at the Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University.

18500 3.7v 1100mah Lithium battery

A crucial chemical aspect of the enhancement proved to be the formation of strong ‘covalent’ bonds between the dopant and oxygen atoms within the structure. These bonds hold atoms together when electrons are shared between the atoms, rather than the ‘ionic’ interaction between positive and negatively charged ions.

“The covalent bonding between the dopant and oxygen atoms makes the problematic release of oxygen less energetically favorable, and therefore less likely to occur,” says Kobayashi.

The researchers used X-ray absorption analysis and theoretical calculations to explore the fine details of changes in the structure of the cathode material caused by introducing different dopant elements. This allowed them to propose theoretical explanations for the improvements they observed. They also used electrochemical analysis to quantify the improvements in the cathode’s energy capacity, stability and the cycling between charging and discharging phases, showing an increase in capacity retention from 50% to 90%.

“We will continue to develop these new insights, hoping to make a significant contribution to the advances in battery technology that will be crucial if electric power is to widely replace fossil fuel use, as required by global efforts to combat climate change,” Kobayashi concludes.

The next phase of the research will include exploring the challenges and possibilities in scaling up the methods into technology ready for commercialization.

More information: Hiroaki Kobayashi et al, Toward Cost-Effective High-Energy Lithium-Ion Battery Cathodes: Covalent Bond Formation Empowers Solid-State Oxygen Redox in Antifluorite-Type Lithium-Rich Iron Oxide, ACS Materials Letters (2024). DOI: 10.1021/acsmaterialslett.4c00268

Provided by Hokkaido University

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A green industrial future for Europe may depend on an element that is part of a household staple: table salt. Dr. John Abou-Rjeily, a researcher at Tiamat Energy in France, is using sodium to develop rechargeable batteries. Sodium is a part of sodium chloride, an ionic compound that is the technical name for ordinary salt.


The idea behind sodium-ion batteries is to reduce Europe’s reliance on the lithium-ion ones that power everything from toothbrushes and mobile phones to mopeds and cars.

Today’s batteries include materials such as lithium, nickel and cobalt that are both scarce and toxic, whereas sodium is one of the most plentiful elements on Earth.

“Sodium-ion batteries are based on more abundant and safer materials than lithium-ion batteries,” said Abou-Rjeily. “There’s not enough lithium ions and cobalt and nickel to meet everyone’s needs.”

He is a research and development engineer at Tiamat, which designs and manufactures sodium-ion batteries.

Abou-Rjeily led a research project to develop sodium-ion batteries that have commercial appeal and can serve as a new foundation for European manufacturing.

Called NAIMA, the project ran from December 2019 through May 2023. It featured companies, research institutions and universities in Bulgaria, Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden.

Battery charge

Batteries are central to Europe’s drive to replace fossil fuels with renewable-energy sources such as wind and solar power. More clean energy in Europe requires new storage capacity that batteries can provide.

The European battery market could be worth as much as €250 billion a year as of 2025. Europe aims to increase its share of global battery-cell production to as high as 25% this decade from 3% in 2018, chipping away at Asia’s 85% dominance.

The research covers all segments of the supply chain—from access to raw materials needed to make batteries and the infrastructure required for storing energy to “smart grids” that automatically charge vehicles when power is cheapest and battery designs that ensure recycling.

Lithium-ion batteries can store lots of energy in a small space, making them winners for smart phones and electric cars. Sodium-ion batteries are slightly bigger and potentially cheaper, making them candidates for storing energy in places such as homes, power tools and small vehicles.

French connection

Abou-Rjeily, a trained chemist from Lebanon, moved to France in 2016 to pursue an interest in environmental sustainability.

He is at home with Tiamat, whose sodium-ion batteries exclude lithium, cobalt and copper and largely avoid nickel too. The company is a spinoff from the French National Center for Scientific Research, or CNRS, which was among the NAIMA participants.

Lithium, cobalt, copper and nickel are on an EU list of critical raw materials, highlighting concerns in Europe about reliance on foreign suppliers and supply squeezes.

For example, when it comes to lithium-ion batteries worldwide, China manufactured almost 80% of them in 2021.

Furthermore, most global production of lithium-ion batteries is expected to go to the automotive industry.

Tiamat plans in 2026 to open a gigafactory in the French city of Amiens to produce sodium-ion batteries suitable initially for equipment such as power tools, according to Abou-Rjeily.

He said NAIMA helped advance the company’s battery know-how.


The project also helped partners move forward with a type of sodium-ion battery for renewable-energy storage. This kind of battery could also one day be suitable for some cars.

While it wouldn’t ever challenge the 500-kilometer capacity of lithium-ion batteries, this sodium-ion type could be more competitive for smaller stretches, according to Abou-Rjeily.

“They could be cheaper for short and medium driving distances,” he said.

Home base

An energy link between cars and homes through sodium-ion batteries is a vision of Dr. Magdalena Graczyk-Zajac, a visiting professor at the Technical University Darmstadt in Germany.

Also an electrochemist at the German energy company EnBW, she is involved in a project to develop a sodium-ion battery for homes. Called SIMBA, the project is due to wrap up in June 2024 after three and a half years.

Graczyk-Zajac paints a future where energy captured by photovoltaic panels on homes is stored in a rechargeable household sodium-ion battery. The battery would then power the homes and charge the inhabitants’ electric vehicles.

Graczyk-Zajac said such a scenario would mean a big cut in transportation costs.

“You could be driving your car for free for eight to nine months of the year,” she said.
best battery -sodium battery

Household gains

While sodium-ion and lithium batteries work in a similar way, sodium is a larger ion than lithium. That’s one reason that a sodium-ion battery takes up a little more space.

For home storage, such a battery would be placed underground or in a garage, so a slightly larger battery wouldn’t matter much, according to Graczyk-Zajac.

SIMBA, which involves almost 20 research institutes, universities and companies from across Europe, has put together some essential components of a home sodium-ion battery for laboratory testing.

One part, the anode, is made from hard carbon, which can be manufactured from wood or biowaste. Another—the cathode—can be made of a material called Prussian white.

While lithium-ion cathodes frequently contain cobalt, this Prussian white cathode contains iron, which is a more abundant and cheaper metal.

This cathode was developed by Altris, a spinoff in 2017 from Uppsala University in Sweden—one of the SIMBA participants.

Altris made headlines in November 2023 when its industry partner, Sweden-based Northvolt, announced that it would make batteries in Europe with the cathode.

In general, sodium-ion batteries promise households in Europe the chance for cheaper and cleaner energy.

The batteries also offer the prospect of financial gains through the storage and then either sale of spare electricity to the grid when home production is higher than needed or later use in the home.

Graczyk-Zajac recommends the later-use option. “A householder would save more money by just keeping that energy,” she said.

More information:

  • EU energy research and innovation
  • European Battery Alliance

Provided by Horizon: The EU Research & Innovation Magazine

Himax Decorative Pictures - battery pro

A solid-state battery is a battery that uses solid electrodes and solid electrolytes. Solid-state batteries generally have lower power density and higher energy density. Because solid-state batteries have a relatively high power-to-weight ratio, they are an ideal battery for electric vehicles. What is the difference between solid-state batteries and lithium ion battery?

The main difference between solid-state batteries and lithium ion battery is the electrolyte. The electrolyte of lithium ions is liquid and exists in the form of gels and polymers, making it difficult to reduce the weight of the battery. In addition, a single lithium ion battery cell does not have high energy, so multiple battery cells must be connected in series and parallel, further increasing the weight. The cost of engineering, manufacturing and installing the battery pack accounts for a large proportion of the overall cost of an electric vehicle.

In addition to weight issues, the electrolyte of lithium-ion batteries is flammable, unstable at high temperatures, and has thermal runaway problems. In the event of a car accident, a serious fire may result. The electrolytes of the batteries also tend to freeze at low temperatures, which will reduce the battery life. In addition, the electrolyte will corrode the internal components of the battery, and the charging and discharging process will also produce dendrites, reducing the battery’s capacity, performance and lifespan.

Himax - 18650 Li-ion Battery 3.7V 45Ah

Instead of a liquid electrolyte inside a solid-state battery, there is a solid electrolyte in the form of glass, ceramic, or other materials. The overall structure of solid-state batteries is similar to traditional lithium-ion batteries, and the charging and discharging methods are also similar. However, because there is no liquid, the battery is more compact inside, smaller in size, and has increased energy density.

If the lithium-ion battery in an electric vehicle is replaced by a solid-state battery of the same size, the capacity can theoretically be increased by more than 2 times.

Moreover, solid-state lithium batteries are lighter in weight and do not require the monitoring, cooling and insulation systems of lithium-ion batteries. The chassis can free up more space for batteries, greatly increasing the endurance of electric vehicles.

In addition, solid-state batteries charge faster than lithium-ion batteries, have no corrosive problems, and have a longer life. Regarding the operating temperature, solid-state batteries are thermally stable and will not freeze at low temperatures. For users living in mid-to-high latitudes, this can ensure the endurance of electric vehicles.

The technical problem currently encountered by solid-state batteries is that the durability of the batteries is insufficient. Because the battery will repeatedly expand and contract during charging and discharging, causing the solid electrolyte to crack and causing the battery to have a short life.

Overall, solid-state battery technology is still in the transition stage from mature technology to industrialization, and it still needs lower material prices, process improvements, and a more stable supply chain system. The advancement of solid-state battery technology will be a gradual process. At present, lithium batteries will still be the mainstream batteries in va

18650 Lithium Ion Battery Pack 14.8V 12Ah

Scientists have discovered a stable and highly conductive lithium-ion conductor for use as solid electrolytes for solid-state lithium ion battery. All-solid-state lithium ion battery with solid electrolytes are non-flammable and have higher energy density and transference numbers than those with liquid electrolytes. They are expected to take a share of the market for conventional liquid electrolyte Li-ion batteries, such as electric vehicles.
However, despite these advantages, solid electrolytes have lower Li-ion conductivity and pose challenges in achieving adequate electrode-solid electrolyte contact. While sulfide-based solid electrolytes are conductive, they react with moisture to form toxic hydrogen disulfide. Therefore, there’s a need for non-sulfide solid electrolytes that are both conductive and stable in air to make safe, high-performance, and fast-charging solid-state Li-ion batteries.
In a recent study published in Chemistry of Materials on 28 March 2024, a research team led by Professor Kenjiro Fujimoto, Professor Akihisa Aimi from Tokyo University of Science, and Dr. Shuhei Yoshida from Denso Corporation, discovered a stable and highly conductive Li-ion conductor in the form of a pyrochlore-type oxyfluoride.
According to Prof. Fujimoto, “Making all-solid-state lithium-ion secondary batteries has been a long-held dream of many battery researchers. We have discovered an oxide solid electrolyte that is a key component of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries, which have both high energy density and safety. In addition to being stable in air, the material exhibits higher ionic conductivity than previously reported oxide solid electrolytes.”

The pyrochlore-type oxyfluoride studied in this work can be denoted as Li2-xLa(1+x)/3M2O6F (M = Nb, Ta). It underwent structural and compositional analysis using various techniques, including X-ray diffraction, Rietveld analysis, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, and selected-area electron diffraction.
Specifically, Li1.25La0.58Nb2O6F was developed, demonstrating a bulk ionic conductivity of 7.0 mS cm⁻¹ and a total ionic conductivity of 3.9 mS cm⁻¹ at room temperature. It was found to be higher than the lithium-ion conductivity of known oxide solid electrolytes. The activation energy of ionic conduction of this material is extremely low, and the ionic conductivity of this material at low temperature is one of the highest among known solid electrolytes, including sulfide-based materials.

Himax - 14.8v-2500mAh 18650 battery pack
Even at –10°C, the new material has the same conductivity as conventional oxide-based solid electrolytes at room temperature. Furthermore, since conductivity above 100 °C has also been verified, the operating range of this solid electrolyte is –10 °C to 100 °C. Conventional lithium-ion batteries cannot be used at temperatures below freezing. Therefore, the operating conditions of lithium-ion batteries for commonly used mobile phones are 0 °C to 45 °C.
The Li-ion conduction mechanism in this material was investigated. The conduction path of pyrochlore-type structure cover the F ions located in the tunnels created by MO6 octahedra. The conduction mechanism is the sequential movement of Li-ions while changing bonds with F ions. Li ions move to the nearest Li position always passing through metastable positions. Immobile La3+ bonded to F ion inhibits the Li-ion conduction by blocking the conduction path and vanishing the surrounding metastable positions.
Unlike existing lithium-ion secondary batteries, oxide-based all solid-state batteries have no risk of electrolyte leakage due to damage and no risk of toxic gas generation as with sulfide-based batteries. Therefore, this new innovation is anticipated to propel future research.
“The newly discovered material is safe and exhibits higher ionic conductivity than previously reported oxide-based solid electrolytes. The application of this material is promising for the development of revolutionary batteries that can operate in a wide range of temperatures, from low to high,” says Prof. Fujimoto. “We believe that the performance required for the application of solid electrolytes for electric vehicles is satisfied.”
Notably, the new material is highly stable and will not ignite if damaged. It is suitable for airplanes and other places where safety is critical. It is also suitable for high-capacity applications, such as electric vehicles, because it can be used under high temperatures and supports rapid recharging. Moreover, it is also a promising material for miniaturization of batteries, home appliances, and medical devices.
In summary, researchers have not only discovered a Li-ion conductor with high conductivity and air stability but also introduced a new type of superionic conductor with a pyrochlore-type oxyfluoride. Exploring the local structure around lithium, their dynamic changes during conduction, and their potential as solid electrolytes for all-solid-state batteries are important areas for future research.
More information: Akihisa Aimi et al, High Li-Ion Conductivity in Pyrochlore-Type Solid Electrolyte Li2–xLa(1+x)/3M2O6F (M = Nb, Ta), Chemistry of Materials (2024). DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemmater.3c03288
Journal information: Chemistry of Materials

marine battery 12v

Are you in the market for a marine battery but feeling overwhelmed by the plethora of options available? Fear not, for I’m here to shed light on the various marine battery technologies to help you make an informed decision. From traditional lead-acid batteries to advanced lithium-ion ones, let’s delve into the world of marine battery technologies.

Lead-Acid Batteries

Lead-acid batteries have long been the go-to choice for marine applications due to their reliability and affordability. They come in two main variants: flooded lead-acid batteries and sealed lead-acid batteries.


Cost-effective: Lead-acid batteries are relatively inexpensive compared to other options.
Wide availability: These batteries are readily available in various sizes and configurations.
Robust: They can withstand overcharging and deep discharges without significant damage.


Maintenance-intensive: Flooded lead-acid batteries require regular maintenance, including checking water levels and cleaning terminals.
Limited lifespan: These batteries typically have a shorter lifespan compared to newer technologies.
Susceptible to vibration damage: The plates inside lead-acid batteries can degrade over time due to vibration.

Lead-acid batteries are well-suited for starting applications and providing power to onboard electronics on smaller boats where cost-effectiveness is a priority.

lifepo4 12v lead acid aeplacement battery 15ah

AGM (Absorbent Glass Mat) Batteries

AGM batteries are a type of sealed lead-acid battery that utilizes absorbent glass mats to hold the electrolyte solution. This construction offers several advantages over traditional flooded lead-acid batteries.


Maintenance-free: AGM batteries are sealed and do not require regular maintenance.
Vibration-resistant: The internal construction of AGM batteries makes them more resistant to vibration damage.
Faster charging: AGM batteries can accept higher charging currents, allowing for faster charging times.


Higher cost: AGM batteries are typically more expensive than flooded lead-acid batteries.
Limited deep cycling capability: While AGM batteries can handle some deep discharges, repeated deep cycling can reduce their lifespan.
Sensitivity to overcharging: Overcharging AGM batteries can lead to premature failure.

AGM batteries are ideal for applications where maintenance-free operation and resistance to vibration are essential, such as powering onboard electronics and accessories on mid-sized boats.

Lithium-Ion Batteries

Lithium-ion batteries represent the latest advancements in marine battery technology, offering superior performance and longevity compared to traditional lead-acid batteries.


Lightweight: Lithium-ion batteries are significantly lighter than lead-acid batteries, making them ideal for weight-sensitive applications.
High energy density: They offer a higher energy density, providing more power in a smaller package.
Long lifespan: Lithium-ion batteries can last significantly longer than lead-acid batteries, with some models boasting lifespans of over 10 years.


Higher initial cost: Lithium-ion batteries come with a higher upfront cost compared to lead-acid batteries.
Safety concerns: While modern lithium-ion batteries incorporate safety features, improper handling or charging can pose a risk of fire or explosion.
Compatibility issues: Some older marine electrical systems may not be compatible with lithium-ion batteries without modifications.

Li-ion batteries are best suited for high-performance applications where weight savings, long lifespan, and fast charging capabilities are crucial, such as powering electric propulsion systems or high-demand onboard electronics on larger vessels.

Choosing the right marine battery technology depends on various factors such as budget, performance requirements, and specific application needs. Whether you opt for the reliability of lead-acid batteries, the convenience of AGM batteries, or the performance of lithium-ion batteries, there’s a solution tailored to your boating needs.

For more information on marine battery technologies and expert advice on selecting the perfect battery for your boat, contact us.

18650 Lithium Ion Battery Pac

Lithium ion battery is a common rechargeable battery type which is widely used in our daily life.

Lithium-ion batteries have higher energy density and better cycle life, so they are widely used in many application fields, such as electric vehicles, portable electronic devices, monitor, toys, etc.

Here are some susggestions when using lithium-ion batteries:

Charging: Use the recommended charger and charging cable and follow the manufacturer’s charging guidelines. Do not use inappropriate or inferior charging equipment to avoid problems such as overcharging, over-discharging or overheating.

Temperature control: Avoid exposing lithium ion battery to high or low temperatures. Excessively high temperatures will reduce battery life and may even cause safety issues. At the same time, battery performance will also be affected at low temperatures.

Himax - 18650 Li ion Battery 3.7V 45Ah

Avoid overcharging and discharging: Try to avoid charging and discharging lithium-ion batteries to the limit. Overcharging or overdischarging can negatively affect battery life. Use professional battery management systems or devices to monitor the charging and discharging process to ensure operations within a safe range.

Prevent physical damage: Lithium-ion batteries are relatively fragile and should be protected from physical damage such as impact, crushing, and bending to ensure their normal function and safety.

Water and Moisture Resistant: Lithium batteries are very sensitive to moisture. Avoid immersing the battery in water or exposing it to moisture to prevent safety risks such as battery performance degradation or circuit short circuits.

Storage conditions: When not in use for a long time, the lithium-ion battery should be charged to about 50% and stored in a dry, ventilated, and temperature-friendly environment to extend its life.

Please follow the instructions and recommendations provided by the manufacturer. If you have any questions or confusion about the use of lithium batteries, please consult the manufacturer for accurate guidance.

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  • Name: Dawn Zeng (Director)
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Charging at High and Low Temperatures(Article illustrations)

Environment: Lithium batterie charging and discharging operations need to be carried out in a ventilated environment with suitable temperature and humidity. This helps prevent adverse conditions such as overheating and humidity from affecting battery performance and safety. At the same time, the charging and discharging area should be far away from the core area, and independent fire partitions should be set up to reduce potential safety risks.


Temperature: Prevent charging and discharging lithium batterie in high or low temperature environments. High temperatures may cause thermal runaway of the battery, while low temperatures may affect the battery’s charge and discharge performance. In addition, the charging and discharging current of lithium batteries shall not exceed the maximum current indicated in the specification sheet.


Charger: Charging operations must use chargers that comply with relevant standards and specifications and are of reliable quality. The charger should have safety requirements such as short-circuit protection, braking power-off function, over-current protection function, and loss-of-control prevention function. In addition, the battery pack should use a charger with a balancing function to ensure that the charge status of each single cell in the battery pack is balanced.


Battery: Before charging and discharging, you must check whether the battery is qualified. This includes confirming whether the battery is damaged, deformed, leaking, smoking, leaking or other abnormal conditions. If there is any problem, charging and discharging operations are not allowed, and the battery must be disposed of safely in a timely manner.


Avoid overcharging and over-discharging: Avoid overcharging and over-discharging during lithium-ion battery charging and discharging operations. Overcharging may cause problems such as increased internal pressure of the battery and electrolyte leakage, while overdischarging may cause battery performance to decrease and shorten its lifespan. Therefore, the voltage and current during charging and discharging should be strictly controlled to ensure that the battery operates within a safe range.


Power supply: When charging and discharging lithium batteries, a power circuit that complies with relevant national electrical standards should be used to ensure the stability and safety of the power supply.

If you have any question, please feel free to contact us:

  • Name: Dawn Zeng (Director)
  • E-mail address: sales@himaxelectronics.com
Himax Decorative Pictures - battery pro

In our technologically dependent society, the mobility, dependability, and safety of our devices—including phones and laptops—are critical. Just as important is our ability to easily charge and recharge these devices so they are available when we need them. To do this, we use rechargeable batteries, specifically lithium batterie.

They give us the freedom of movement and connectivity we need. As society’s needs evolve, so too does our tech, and so too must the batteries that allow us to use this tech. One of the most urgent concerns regarding lithium-ion batteries is their safety. Though rare, there are issues with explosions and fires caused by electrochemical system instability.

“Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop LIBs that can provide higher energy density, longer cycle life, and improved safety,” said Ying Bai, corresponding author of new research on this topic and a professor at the Beijing Institute of Technology in China.

Beijing scientists have been researching the use of additives in the sulfone-based electrolyte of  lithium batterie to improve their performance. They found that by adding triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO), “the TPPO improves the thermal stability of the electrolyte, which has important industrial value and foundational significance of TPPO as an additive for advancing the development of LIB’s,” said Chuan Wu, co-corresponding author on the research and a professor at Beijing Institute of Technology.

The team’s paper is published in Energy Materials and Devices.

When lithium batterie is discharging lithium-ions, they move from an anode, which is an electrode where current enters the battery, through an electrolyte that passes through a separator to a cathode, which is where the current leaves the storage battery to energize a device. The path is reversed when recharging.

“In the composition of the battery, the non-aqueous electrolyte used in LIBs plays a crucial role in determining key performance parameters such as cycle life, power density, and efficiency,” said Ying Bai. Power density is a measure of stored power per volume, and cycle life is the number of charge/discharge cycles that a battery can undergo before it starts to decrease the percentage of charge it can hold.

18650 Li ion Battery 4400mah 10.8v-Lithium Batterie

The electrolyte solutions in use now have some issues with cycle stability, thermal stability, and safety. Rather than completely changing the electrolyte solution, the team chose to test the use of an additive, TPPO, in the electrolyte to improve the performance of the overall battery.

When tested, TPPO was found to have several important properties.

“Firstly, it reduces the flame point of the sulfone electrolyte; Secondly, it selectively forms a stable passivation film, enhancing the interface stability between the sulfone electrolyte and the electrode material,” said Chuan Wu. The passivation film forms as the TPPO decomposes and coats the cathode, rendering it more resistant to wear and tear, similarly reducing the electrolyte’s breakdown while enhancing the lithium ions’ movement across the electrolyte.

Using theoretical calculations, electrochemical characterization, and flammability tests, the researchers found “that the addition of 2 wt.% TPPO to the sulfone-based electrolyte significantly enhances the ionic conductivity within the temperature range of 20–60°C.”

“Additionally, it increases the discharge capacity of LIBs in the range of 2–4.8 V while maintaining excellent rate performance and cycling stability. Flammability tests and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) results indicate the excellent non-flammability and thermal stability of the electrolyte,” said Ying Bai.

In short, the new electrolyte that they have developed is safer as it is non-flammable, is thermally stable and has an increased energy discharge capacity.

More information: Qiaojun Li et al, Enhanced safety of sulfone-based electrolytes for lithium batterie: broadening electrochemical window and enhancing thermal stability, Energy Materials and Devices (2024). DOI: 10.26599/EMD.2023.9370022

Provided by Tsinghua University Press

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We know that lithium batterie. But a NIMS research team has developed a new technique to image grain boundaries obstructing lithium-ion migration in solid-state batteries—a promising type of next-generation battery.

Solid-state batteries—next-generation rechargeable batteries—are intended to be safer and have higher energy densities than conventional lithium batterie by replacing liquid organic electrolytes with solid electrolytes. A major issue in current solid-state battery R&D is the obstruction of lithium-ion migration at the interfaces between active materials and solid electrolytes and at the grain boundaries within solid electrolytes.

These obstructions lower charge/discharge rates and reduce energy density in batteries. A solid electrolyte is composed of crystalline grains and the boundaries between them. Existing ionic conductivity evaluation methods had only been able to measure average ionic conductivity across a solid electrolyte and were unable to quantify ionic conductivity at individual grain boundaries and identify boundaries restricting ionic migration.

This research team succeeded in imaging and quantifying ionic migration/diffusion at individual grain boundaries within a solid electrolyte using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). SIMS enables the imaging of chemical element distribution across a solid electrolyte specimen by sputtering the surface of the specimen with a focused primary ion beam and collecting and analyzing ejected secondary ions.

Li-ion-lithium batterie

The team first replaced a portion of a stable lithium isotope, 7Li (mass number: 7, natural abundance: 92%), constituting an electrolyte specimen with another lithium isotope, 6Li (mass number: 6, natural abundance: 8%), at the edge of the specimen using an isotope exchange technique.

The team then observed the diffusion of 6Li within the specimen using SIMS. Because it was impossible to image and quantify the distribution of fast-diffusing 6Li using conventional SIMS, the team significantly slowed 6Li diffusion by cooling the specimen (i.e., cryo-SIMS), enabling the team to precisely measure the 6Li distribution and identify grain boundaries acting as bottlenecks to ionic migration.

The cryo-SIMS technique can be used to directly observe lithium-ion diffusion, identify interfaces/grain boundaries acting as bottlenecks among the many interfaces/boundaries existing in a solid-state battery, and determine the causes of these obstructions. This approach is expected to contribute to the development of higher-performance solid-state batteries.

The work is published in the Journal of Materials Chemistry A.

More information: Gen Hasegawa et al, Visualization and evaluation of lithium diffusion at grain boundaries in Li0.29La0.57TiO3 solid electrolytes using secondary ion mass spectrometry, Journal of Materials Chemistry A (2023). DOI: 10.1039/D3TA05012B

Provided by National Institute for Materials Science

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