Himax - Portable Power Supply

Portable Power Supply

What is a Portable Power Station?

As energy-dense lithium battery technology has advanced over the last 10 years, portable power stations have emerged as a useful solution for off-grid power. A portable power station is an easily transportable lithium battery that combines a built-in battery gauge, an inverter with AC outlet, and multiple DC outlets to provide power for common devices while you’re off the grid.

All electronic devices use either AC or DC electricity. An alternating current (AC) is the more commonly recognized type of electricity. Most household appliances, including air conditioning, microwaves, refrigerators, and hair dryers, run off AC. Less commonly recognized than AC, direct current (DC) is used in devices that have a battery as their power source. These include cell phones, laptops, portable speakers, and cameras.

If you were to purchase a battery by itself it would not be useful to power all your devices. Power stations are useful because they merge an inverter to power AC devices (standard two or three-prong US wall socket type) with different connectors to power DC devices all in one unit. Some familiar DC outlet types include USB-A, USB-C, barrel jacks, and 12V car power sockets (also known as cigarette lighter sockets). Good portable power stations include not only a standard charger that plugs into the wall at home, but also allow for charging from a solar panel.

Portable Power Station

Advantages of a Portable Power Station

Whether you need power when camping, fishing, tailgating, on the job site, or in an emergency, a portable power station can provide electricity when and where you need it. When looking at the advantages of a portable power station, a comparison must be made to their alternative, which is a fossil fuel generator. Although generators provide an endless amount of power as long as you have the fuel, they are noisy, emit dangerous greenhouse gases (carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide), and require regular running and maintenance, including oil changes, cleaning air filters and spark arrestors, and potentially cleaning out the carburetor when it gets clogged by dirty fuel.

Conversely, portable power stations do not require any maintenance besides discharging and recharging at least once every six months. They are silent and can be used indoors without fear of asphyxia. Despite their finite capacity, their capacity limitations can be overcome by planning for and purchasing a power station with enough watt-hours in reserve to get you through your intended adventure and/or supplementing capacity with a solar panel.

Depending on the continuous watt rating and capacity, a portable power station can be used to power almost any device for as long as you want. You can calculate your power needs, size your battery bank and determine your solar requirements here.

Himax’s Portable Power Station

RELiON Outlaw 1072S运行时

We currently offer the H-1000w, which is a 1000-watt continuous 2000-watt peak, 921-watt hour portable power supply, which is capable of charging through a solar panel (150-watt max). The Outlaw is powered by LiFePO4 cells capable of 2,000-lifetime cycles at 80% depth of discharge with proper care. The H-1000w can power most creature comforts you would want while camping or tailgating, or if your power went out at home for an extended period.

12V 100AH
Want to know more about LiPo charging? Here we will present a few data that will be involved when charging a LiPo battery to help you better understand the charging of LiPo batteries.

LiPo battery charging voltage

The highest voltage of LiPo battery charging, I believe that the majority of mold friends can know this common sense.4.20V is the highest voltage of LiPo batteries, but with the development and improvement of technology, most of the current manufacturers LiPo batteries can safely reach 4.25V, and some top technology manufacturers can achieve 4.30V, the voltage of 4.30V is the highest voltage of the current technology. Because the charger for the polymer battery of our RC model is basically a set voltage of 4.20V, it can be charged according to 4.20V. If you use other methods to increase the maximum charging voltage (such as 4.35V), it will cause irreversible damage to the battery.

LiPo battery charging mode

All LiPo batteries are charged in constant current and constant voltage to meet the requirements of fullness.

First of all, to explain to you what is called constant current and constant voltage charging. As the name implies, it is charged in a constant voltage after constant current. For large household B6 or A6 or other chargers to charge the RC battery, you should first set the two parameters of charging current and S number. In fact, this is to set the constant current value and the constant voltage value of the constant current and constant voltage mode.

For example, the parameter set to “5A, 6S”, after starting the charger, under the control of the program, the charger will charge the battery with 5A current in the early stage, while sampling and monitoring the battery voltage, when the battery voltage is close to or arrives 4.2V, the charger will gradually reduce the charging current, until the voltage is kept at 4.2V and the current is less than the preset value, the charger is considered to be fully charged and stops automatically.

So what is the default value mentioned above? According to our actual measurement data of some chargers, this preset value is generally divided into two situations.

  1. Some manufacturers set the preset value as 10% of the charging current. For example, if you choose 5A charging, when the current is lower than 500MA after constant voltage, the program determines that the preset value has been reached.
  2. Fixed values. Some chargers, like the A6, have a preset charging value of 100MA, while others have a simple charging setting of 20MA. If you use your own 4.2v power supply, you can make the charger smaller without limit.

This indicates that the smaller the present value is, the more the battery will be able to charge up to nearly 4.2v, the higher the battery will be fully charged.


LiPo batteries charging current 

Talk about the charging current of the LiPo battery. Battery charging is actually a process of converting electrical energy into chemical energy, which is a chemical reaction. As we all learned in school, the intensity of a chemical reaction is strongly related to temperature and pressure. The speed of charge and discharge is actually the speed of chemical reaction. Conditional RC enthusiasts can find the relevant substances to do the experiment by yourself. The reaction speed is quite slow.

According to the experimental data and theoretical proof, lithium battery charging current within 1C without any damage to the battery. More than 2C current will cause a slight drop in capacity, while 5C charging will have a significant decrease in capacity. The reduction in capacity is mainly due to the damage caused by the crystallization of materials inside the battery, but after dozens of times, you will know that the battery capacity decreases and this is irreversible. Therefore, it is suggested that the model friend honestly control the charging current within 1C, which is better for the battery.

As the largest countries of lithium polymer battery all over the world, China accounts for more than one-third of global production. Currently, strong demand for materials spreads over more than 100 lithium battery manufacturers, said to their urgent plans for the mass output increase within 2 years.

lithium polymer battery characteristics

Compared to most lithium polymer batteries, the lithium polymer battery is with characteristics as below:

1. No battery leakage problem

The battery does not contain a liquid electrolyte, using a colloidal solid.

2. Thin battery

Thin battery with a capacity of 3.6V400mAh, its thickness can be as thin as 0.45mm. Various Shapes

3. various shapes

The battery can be designed in various shapes: round, D, arc, etc.


4. Bending deformation

The battery can be bending deformation: polymer battery maximum bending around 90 °.

5. Single high voltage

liquid electrolyte battery can only get high voltage by several batteries in series, while polymer battery can be made into multi-layer combination in a single battery to achieve high voltage because there is no liquid itself.

6. High capacity

The capacity will be twice that of a lithium-ion battery of the same size.

Lithium polymer battery structure

No matter what kind of lithium polymer battery it is, the basic structure is a positive plate, negative plate, positive and negative current collector, diaphragm paper, shell and sealing ring, cover plate, etc.

1. Cathode material

Currently, the cathode material used is LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, LiFePO4, and doping modification systems of these materials. Cathode electrode sheet current collector is made of aluminum foil.

2. Anode material

various types of graphite. Anode material electrode sheet current collector is made of copper foil.

3. Electrolyte

At present, the lithium salt electrolyte is preferably to be LiPF6, but the price is relatively expensive; the other options like LiAsF6 with high toxicity, LiClO4 with strong oxidizing property and the organic solvent including DEC, DMC, DME, etc.

4. Diaphragm paper

The diaphragm adopts microporous polypropylene film or the special treated for low-density polyethylene film.

In addition, the shell, the cap, the seal and so on are changed depending on the shape of the battery along with the consideration of safety devices, protection circuits, etc.

The main processes in the lithium polymer battery manufacturing process are batching (pulping), Battery slices formation (coating), assembly and formation.

Among the above, the cathode electrode slurry is composed of cathode electrode active material lithium cobaltate (LiCoO 2 ), conductive agent (carbon powder, graphite, etc.), and binder PVdF (N-dimethyl pyrrolidone). Also, the anode electrode slurry is composed of the anode active material carbon or graphite and the binder PVdF(N-dimethyl arsenic alone).

The substrate of the cathode electrode is an aluminum foil and the substrate of the anode electrode is a copper foil.

The electrolyte to be injected is a multi-element organic substance such as ethylene carbonate (EC), diethyl carbonate (DEC), dimethyl ester (DMC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), propylene carbonate (PC). ), dimethyl glycol (DME), tetrahydrofuran (THF), and so on.


Since the coating & battery slices formation process generally uses mechanical wet hanging and drying, dust is less likely to be generated. But dust is generated during slicing and winding assembly. The main pollutant is the organic waste gas produced in the drying process.

Charging Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries

Change can be daunting, even when switching from a lead-acid battery to a lithium iron phosphate battery. We all know properly charging your battery is critical and directly impacts the performance and life of the battery. Let’s take a look at how to charge your LiFePO4 battery to maximize your investment.

Charging Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries

Charging Conditions

Much like your cell phone, you can charge your lithium iron phosphate batteries whenever you want. Obviously, if you let them drain completely, you won’t be able to use them until they get some charge. The key thing to note is that unlike lead-acid batteries, lithium iron phosphate batteries do not get damaged if they are left in a partial state of charge, so you don’t have to stress about getting them charged immediately after use. And they don’t have a memory effect, so you don’t have to drain them completely before charging.

LiFePO4 batteries can safely charge at temperatures between -4°F – 131°F (0°C – 55°C), however, we recommend charging in temperatures above 32°F (0°C). If you do charge below freezing temperatures, you must make sure the charge current is 5-10% of the capacity of the battery.

How to Charge a Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery

The ideal way to charge a LiFePO4 battery is with a lithium iron phosphate battery charger, as it will be programmed with the appropriate voltage limits. Most lead-acid battery chargers will do the job just fine. AGM and GEL charge profiles typically fall within the voltage limits of a lithium iron phosphate battery. Wet lead-acid battery chargers tend to have a higher voltage limit, which may cause the Battery Management System (BMS) to go into protection mode. This won’t harm the battery, however, it may cause fault codes on the charger display.

Charging Batteries in Parallel Best Practices

When connecting your lithium batteries in parallel, it is best to charge each battery individually before making the parallel connection(s). If you have a voltmeter, check the voltage a couple hours after the charge is complete and make sure they are within 50mV (0.05V) of each other before paralleling them. This will minimize the chance of imbalance between the batteries and, ultimately, maximize the performance of the system. Over time, if you notice the capacity of your battery bank has decreased, disconnect the parallel connections and charge each battery individually, then reconnect.

Charging Batteries in Series Best Practices

Connecting lithium batteries in series is much like connecting them in parallel, it is best to charge each battery up individually and check the voltage and ensure they are within 50mV (0.05V) of each other before making the series connections.

It is highly recommended to charge lithium batteries in series with a multi-bank charger. This means each battery is charged at the same time but completely independent of each other. In some applications this is not practical, which is why Himax offers 24V and 48V batteries to reduce the need for multiple batteries in series.

What About During Storage?

Lithium iron phosphate batteries are so much easier to store than lead-acid batteries. For short-term storage of 3-6 months, you don’t have to do a thing. Ideally, leave them at around 50% state of charge before storing. For long-term storage, it is best to store them at a 50% state of charge and then cycle them by discharging them, recharging them and then partially discharging them to approximately 50%, every 6-12 months.

The Key Differences Between Lithium Iron Phosphate and Lead-Acid Batteries When It Comes to Charging

Lithium batteries can charge at a much higher current and they charge more efficiently than lead-acid, which means they can be charged faster. Lithium batteries do not need to be charged if they are partially discharged. Unlike lead-acid batteries, which when left in a partial state of charge will sulfate, drastically reducing performance and life.

lithium batteries come with an internal Battery Management System (BMS) that protects the battery from being over-charged, whereas lead-acid batteries can be over-charged, increasing the rate of grid corrosion and shortening battery life.

For more details on charging your Himax lithium batteries, contact us if you have any questions.

mail: sales@himaxelectronics.com

Lithium Vs. Lead-Acid

Lithium Vs. Lead-Acid

This week, we discuss the differences you experience when using lithium compared to lead-acid batteries. We compare everything from installation to weight and speed. Watch the full video to learn more about the benefits of switching to lithium.


Let’s start with installation. Lithium batteries are half the weight of the same capacity lead-acid batteries making them much easier to lift and install into your vehicle or equipment. A 100 Amp-hour lithium batteries weighs less than 30 lbs.!

The first thing people notice with lithium batteries when they operate their equipment, whether it’s a boat, golf cart or any other type of vehicle, is the feel. The reduced weight and higher power provided by lithium batteries, results in a noticeably faster and smoother ride.

The higher voltage of a lithium battery provides more power, which increases the ability to accelerate. You can reach top speed faster and more often. When maneuvering up a hill, or with a heavier load, or against the current, with lead-acid batteries, you just can’t reach full speed but with lithium batteries you can and do!

When lithium batteries are used for house power in an RV, people often use the benefit of less weight and more power, to add more of the items they really want in their RV.

You will experience full power throughout use. It is not uncommon to run accessories off your battery bank in a vehicle. With lead-acid batteries this can be problematic. For example, while powering a boat with lead-acid batteries, at some point the voltage will drop too low to allow the accessories to operate. With lithium you won’t lose power to those accessories as the voltage remains high until the batteries are fully depleted.

Another notable experience with lithium batteries is how long they last. You won’t be replacing your batteries every 1-5 years, depending on your particular application.

Equally important to what you experience is what you don’t experience. Let me explain.

You won’t experience a loss of valuable time. This point is two-fold in charging AND maintenance. First, lithium charges four to six times faster than lead acid. So there’s less time (and electricity) to recharge. Second, with lead-acid batteries you can’t avoid spending time cleaning acidic messes on the top of the batteries, in the battery compartment and on the floor. If you let it go too long, you may have to change battery cables due to corrosive build-up. With lithium there is no mess to clean up ever!

Finally, lead-acid batteries are easy to damage. Even with the best intentions, at some point, we will most likely not add water when needed, or not fully charge our batteries or leave them discharged for an extended period of time, resulting in permanent damage, shortening life. None of this impact’s lithium batteries. Lithium batteries truly provide peace of mind.

In fact, lithium batteries are so reliable and maintenance-free, you might even forget you have them!

Flexible LiPO Battery

Flexible LiPO Battery

As Huawei and Samsung released the folding screen phones Mate X and Galaxy Fold respectively, they have a technologically-sense design and excellent hardware configuration. The unfolded area of the new folding screen mobile phone screen can reach more than 7.3 inches, which enhances the user experience. But in fact, a more disruptive, practical, and cost-effective mobile phone design is already on the way to development. It is a fully flexible wearable mobile phone.

Fully flexible mobile phones are dubbed “wrist phones” by the media. They are not limited to the folding of the middle part. They can bend the whole mobile phone freely, which is convenient to wear on the wrist and other parts to achieve better integration with the human body. The current folding screen mobile phones still use ordinary rigid batteries, avoiding the problem of using flexible batteries. If you want to introduce revolutionary fully flexible electronic devices, you must develop corresponding flexible power supplies and implant them. Therefore, the development of flexible lithium batteries with high energy density will be of great significance to promote the development of wearable flexible electronic devices.

The ideal flexible battery should have high flexibility, energy density, and power density at the same time. However, these factors often hinder each other in the flexible battery. In this review, this article made a detailed analysis based on the structural design of the battery components and the overall device level, and reviewed the latest developments in flexible lithium batteries, and summarized the current academic development ideas into the following four strategies:

1) Development of a deformable battery module with a porous structure

Such as porous current collectors, porous electrodes, flexible solid electrolytes, etc. Flexible porous structures are currently widely used in battery modules to cushion the strain generated when the battery device is subjected to bending and twisting.

1) Development of a deformable battery module with a porous structure

a) A conductive porous film of graphene oxide, which has a conductivity as high as 3112 S/cm. The flexible lithium battery assembled with this film as the current collector did not find a significant decrease in capacity after 100 cycles of high charge-discharge rate (5C).

b) A composite cathode material of single-walled carbon nanotubes and polymer (2,5-dihydroxy-1,1-benzoquinone sulfide) is used to assemble flexible lithium batteries. The flexible battery exhibits a specific discharge capacity of 182 mAh/g at low current (50 mA/g), and can still reach a specific capacity of 75 mAh/g when discharged at a large current (5000 mA/g).

c) Using bacterial cellulose as a template, develop a solid electrolyte composite of Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) and polyethylene oxide. The porous interconnected polymer matrix is ​​used as a mechanical carrier that is soft and strong, and the LLZO particles used to transport Li-ions are embedded in it. The overall display shows a high ionic conductivity of 1.12×10-4 S/cm and excellent mechanical flexibility.

2) Ultra-thin battery design

Such as single-pair (or double-pair) positive/separator/negative structure. Compared with strategy 1, strategy 2 (ultra-thin battery design) requires battery design from the overall device level.


a) The ultra-thin flexible lithium battery with a thickness of only 0.4mm released by Himax Battery can be applied to various wearable devices. Even after bending with a bending radius of 25 mm, or twisting to an angle of ±25 degrees for more than 1,000 times, this flexible battery can still maintain 99% of the capacity.

b) A Li4Ti5O12/LiPON/Li thin-film solid-state battery prepared based on the flame spray pyrolysis method with flexible polyimide as the supporting substrate. After charging and discharging at a rate of 1C and cycling in a flat, bent, and flatform for 90 times, the battery’s discharge capacity retention rate is still as high as 98%, showing excellent cycle performance.

3) Geometric topology battery design

Such as linear structure, Origami, Kirigami structure, etc. In addition to improving the flexibility of the battery component material itself, the battery structure designed by the principle of geometric topology can reduce the stress change generated in the battery during the deformation process.

Geometric topology battery design

a. This strategy was first reported in the work of its linear battery. The flexible battery can not only adapt to bending deformation, but also more complex shape changes, such as folding and twisting.

b. Using spring-like LiCoO2/reduced graphene oxide as the positive electrode material, combined with gel electrolyte, a self-healing flexible lithium battery was designed and assembled. Under complex deformation (bending and torsion), charging and discharging at a current density of 1 A/g, the battery can still maintain a discharge specific capacity of 82.6 mAh/g; even if the battery is cut and healed five times, the battery can still be The specific discharge capacity is 50.1 mAh/g.

c. In addition to linear structures, paper folding technology is also widely used in flexible batteries. With the Origami origami solution, a two-dimensional sheet material can be folded along a predetermined crease to create a compact and deformable three-dimensional structure that can withstand high-strength deformation.

d. Soon after, a Kirigami scheme was developed combining folding and cutting technology. After 100 charge-discharge cycles, the battery can achieve a capacity retention rate of more than 85% and a coulombic efficiency of 8%. After 3,000 battery deformations, the maximum output power of the battery has not been significantly reduced.

4) Decouple the flexible and energy storage parts of the battery

Such as spine battery, Zigzag battery, etc. For the above-mentioned flexible battery design, dislocation, peeling, and shedding between the active material and the current collector still occur during the complex deformation process. The increased overpotential and internal resistance of the battery due to poor contact will reduce the capacity retention rate and coulomb efficiency of the full battery, which is not conducive to the cycle performance of the battery. The potential solution is to redesign the battery architecture to separate energy storage and provide flexibility.

Decouple the flexible and energy storage parts of the battery

a. De Volder et al. demonstrated a layered tapered carbon nanotube structure, similar to the morning glory of a plant. The wide corolla is used to carry the positive and negative active material particles, and the slender stem part and the current collector are below. The parts are tightly combined. During the deformation of the battery, most of the stress is applied to the current collector itself, and the tapered structure hardly produces strain during this period, thus exhibiting extremely high flexibility. The Fe2O3/LiNi8Co0.2O2 full battery assembled with this tapered structure can be charged and discharged 500 times at a rate of 1C and still has a capacity retention rate of 88%.

b. Inspired by the good mechanical strength and flexibility of the animal spine, a method for large-scale production of high-energy-density flexible lithium-ion batteries: store energy by surrounding thick, rigid parts in the axial direction (corresponding to the spine), And the thin, non-circular flexible part (corresponding to the bone marrow and intervertebral disc) is used to connect the “spine”, thereby achieving good flexibility and high energy density of the entire device. Since the volume of the rigid electrode part is much larger than the flexible connection part, occupying more than 95% of the volume of the battery cell, the energy density of the whole battery can reach 242Wh/L. The reasonable bionic design makes it pass the strong dynamic mechanical load test.

Questions and answers from flexible lithium battery experts

Xie Ming, a well-known flexible lithium battery expert in the industry, accepted an exclusive interview from the material man. The following is the interview content.

Q: Based on the actual situation of current industrial production, please comment on the four flexible lithium battery development strategies summarized in the review.

A:  1) Development of flexible battery elements with porous structure carbon (nanotube) paper is used as a flexible current collector, the cost is relatively high, which is not easily accepted by manufacturers; secondly, when carbon paper is used as a negative current collector, its side reactions are very obvious. If a porous metal current collector (such as copper mesh, aluminum mesh, etc.) is used, its flexibility can meet actual needs, but during the coating process, the slurry easily penetrates from the mesh pores. The current development of related coating processes is still An important challenge facing the corporate world.

2) Ultra-thin battery design

In order to achieve stable mechanical flexibility and electrochemical performance, ultra-thin batteries mostly use single-pair (or double-pair) low-capacity (usually less than 60 mAh) design, so their application scenarios and markets are very limited. In order to make the battery thinner, GREPOW has introduced a mature technology ultra-thin battery. While meeting the actual requirements, the overall battery thickness can be less than 8mm, and the thinnest can reach 0.4mm. You can imagine this is like A battery as thin as paper.

3) Geometric topology battery design

The concept proposed by this strategy is very good, represented by the linear battery, its mechanical flexibility, and electrochemical performance can be guaranteed. At present, many research teams are committed to developing new types of fibrous and linear batteries to solve traditional bottlenecks. The fly in the ointment is that the positive electrode, negative electrode, and separator of this linear battery rely on self-synthesis, which is different from commercial battery components, which will increase production costs. In addition, most linear batteries use heat-shrinkable tubes instead of aluminum-plastic film packaging. The heat-shrinkable tube materials have a limited barrier to water vapor and oxygen, and it is difficult to meet actual needs in long-term use.

4) Decouple the flexible and energy storage parts of the battery

This strategy uses improved commercial battery components, which is of great significance to promote the development and production of flexible lithium batteries. As early as 14 years or so, some Chinese companies have begun to develop “bamboo-shaped” batteries that look similar to “spine” batteries. According to the latest literature report on “Zigzag” batteries, the energy density of flexible lithium batteries assembled with the “decoupling” strategy can reach 275 Wh/L. After the process optimization of industrial standards, the energy density can still be achieved. Room for improvement. At present, an MIT research group has developed a series of fully automatic and personalized battery pole piece winding equipment. It is believed that with the intervention of an intelligent manufacturing system (IMS) service providers, the shortcomings of this type of battery assembly process can be gradually overcome.

Q: Could you please introduce the application scenarios of flexible batteries in the future?

A: At present, flexible wearable devices are the largest application market for flexible batteries. Taking smartwatches as an example, many large consumer electronics manufacturers have proposed the idea of ​​implanting flexible batteries into smartwatch straps, removing the battery from the panel, and realizing an ultra-light and ultra-thin dial design. They hope that the capacity of the flexible battery can be close to 500 mAh, but the volume energy density of the more mature flexible lithium battery samples in the industry is about 300-400 Wh/L, which is temporarily difficult to achieve the above goal. In addition, in order to introduce the current in the watchband to the dial, it is necessary to design the circuit in the watchband, which will be a considerable investment in development.

In addition, fully flexible mobile phones will be an important application scenario for flexible lithium batteries in the future. A few days ago, Samsung released a new foldable mobile phone Galaxy Fold, but this phone still uses ordinary rigid batteries, avoiding the problem of using flexible batteries. If you want to launch a revolutionary fully flexible mobile phone, you must develop a high-capacity (more than 2000 mAh) flexible battery implanted in it. As mentioned in this review, energy density and mechanical flexibility are usually in a flexible battery. The combination of scientific experiments and theoretical simulation is used to deeply study the basic mechanical problems in flexible batteries. Development work is very helpful.

Q: Please talk about the core competitiveness of flexible batteries from the perspective of industrial applications.

A: Compared with traditional non-bendable batteries, the volumetric energy density of flexible batteries will definitely be affected. Therefore, flexible batteries must find their own application positioning, that is, place batteries in places where batteries could not be placed before, make full use of every effective space of electronic devices, and increase the standby time by increasing the overall battery capacity of electronic devices. This is another strategy to solve consumers’ anxiety about mobile phone standby when the energy density of lithium-ion battery materials has not been greatly developed.

In short, flexible batteries do have a broad potential application market. In recent years, well-known international companies such as Apple and Samsung have launched patent arrangements in related fields. However, most downstream electronic equipment manufacturers still expect to start the development of a fully flexible series of products after the flexible battery production technology has matured.

If you are interested in our products, please don’t hesitate to contact us at any time!

Email: sales@himaxelectronics.com

LiPO Battery

LiPO Battery

Introduce you to the factors that cause lithium-polymer batteries to fail and how to prevent them from failure. Some approaches that can maximize lipo batteries’ life will also be included.

Cycle life

Generally speaking, the standard service life of a lithium polymer battery is 3 years, and the number of cycles ranges from 300-500. The cycle life of a battery does not mean that the battery will be completely unusable at the end of that number but that the discharge efficiency and capacity of the battery will be reduced accordingly. The range for the number of cycles usually refers to the battery’s capacity retention of 80%. Improper usage may result in a  reduced cycle life, thus resulting in a premature battery failure.


Lithium batteries will naturally undergo self-discharge from the moment they’re produced regardless of whether they are being stored, transported, or connected to a device. Thus, it’s very important to ensure that the battery is checked and cycled every three months to prevent any deep discharges. Once a battery has been discharged beyond its standard voltage platform, it’ll be impossible to recover without damaging the internals, resulting in premature battery failure from over discharging.


Another factor of premature failure is overcharging. Overcharging may cause a battery to swell or even catch on fire. A typical lithium battery has a fully charged voltage of 4.2V unless it’s a specially formulated Lithium High-Voltage battery that is otherwise known as LiHv. Fun fact: Grepow’s High Voltage batteries can produce batteries that charge up to 4.45V without causing damage to the battery’s cycle life.

The BMS, is a great way to prevent overcharging and overdischarging thus preventing possible premature battery failure.

Inappropriate temperature

Utilizing a battery at inappropriate temperatures is another factor that could cause premature battery failure. Under low temperatures, the chemical reactions within the battery become sluggish, which results in plating. Under high temperatures, the electrolytes will have difficulty maintaining their liquid form causing evaporation and ultimately making the battery short circuit.

Violent damage

As always, drops and punctures to a battery can undoubtedly damage it. Avoiding the undesirable factors mentioned here will allow you to fully maximize the potential and lifespan of a Lithium Polymer battery.



Lithium Cobalt Oxide batteries and lithium iron phosphate batteries are the most widely used formulas for both LiPo (Lithium Polymer) and Li-Ion (Lithium Ion).

What difference between Lithium Iron Phosphate and Lithium Cobalt Oxide? This video will help you to know that.

The cycle life of Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries are more than 4 to 5 times that of Lithium Cobalt Oxide batteries, and is safer; however, its disadvantage is the lower discharge platform and energy density. The nominal voltage of Lithium Iron Phosphate is 3.2V, the full voltage is 3.65V, but the nominal voltage of Lithium Cobalt Oxide battery is 3.7V, and the full voltage is 4.2V.

The difference between 3.2V and 3.7V may not seem like much, but when we connect cells in series to make a 12V battery pack, only 3 cells are needed for Lithium Cobalt Oxide cells and 4 cells for Lithium Iron Phosphate cells, which makes a difference in cost and weight.

In addition, these two types of batteries are quite different in terms of cycle lifeenergy density, and safety performance.

The Energy Density

The energy density of Lithium Cobalt Oxide is higher than that of Lithium Iron Phosphate resulting in better Watt-hours Wh/kg and Watt-hours Wh/Liter.

A Lithium Cobalt Oxide battery (LCO) is a type of rechargeable battery, combined with a microporous separator with electrolyte, it mainly relies on the movement of lithium ions between positive electrode and negative electrode. Lithium batteries use an intercalated lithium compound as an electrode material.

A Lithium Iron Phosphate battery (LiFePO4) is a type of LiPo battery that uses Lithium Iron Phosphate as the anode material and a graphite carbon based electrode with a metallic backing as the cathode. It has a wide range of raw material sources, a long cycle life, a high safety index, excellent thermal, chemical stability, and outstanding high temperature resistance.

The Cycle Life

In terms of cycle life, Lithium Cobalt Oxide generally can reach 500 cycles, and the cycle times of Lithium Iron Phosphate are longer. This is a major feature of Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries, which can reach 1500 to 2000 cycles or more. The Lithium Iron Phosphate battery can also reach 100% depth of discharge. Therefore, a good Lithium Iron Phosphate battery can last from 3 to 7 years under regulated use.

The Safety Performance

In terms of safety, Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries are far safer than Lithium Cobalt Oxide batteries.

Lithium Cobalt Oxide batteries have the advantage of high current charging and discharging, and they allow devices to release more energy in a short period of time. Lithium Cobalt Oxide with high discharge rates can achieve continuous discharge rates of up to 50C and pulse discharge rates of up to 150C. They are 40% lighter than a steel-cased lithium-ion battery of the same capacity and 20% lighter than an aluminum-cased battery. These make them more useful for racing applications and power tools, such as RC models and UAVs.

Generally speaking, Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries are not capable of high current discharge, as they are mostly used in energy storage applications, like UPS and solar energy storage systems. But Grepow’s Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries can be discharged at a high rate, with a continuous current of up to 40C, which is suitable for applications such as boat racing, jump starters and powersports.

Shaped Battery

LiPo batteries can be made into a variety of shapes, and are well suited for watches, headphones, rings and other devices that require a high degree of form. However, the voltage and energy density of Lithium Iron Phosphate batteries are lower than those of other Lithium Cobalt Oxide batteries.



NI-MH 2200mah AA

Temperature has one of the greatest impacts on the charge and discharge performance of batteries. The electrode/electrolyte interface is considered the heart of the battery, and the electrochemical reactions at this interface are closely related to the ambient temperature. If the temperature drops, the reaction rate of the electrode also drops.

When NiMH batteries are charged and discharged, multiple factors must be considered: the surrounding environment of the batteries but especially battery performance and service life under extreme temperatures.

We will explore what occurs to NiMH batteries, particularly wide temperature-range NiMH batteries, when under low and high temperatures.

Wide temperature-range NiMH batteries

Wide temperature-range NiMH batteries, as their name implies, are a type of NiMH batteries with a wide working-temperature range and excellent performance at -40°C to 80°C. In other words, these batteries can operate efficiently at both low and high temperatures, and their temperature limitations are greatly reduced.

Under low temperatures

The discharge efficiency of ordinary nickel-hydrogen batteries are significantly reduced at low temperatures. At -20°C, the lye reaches its freezing point and the battery charging speed greatly diminishes. Charging at low temperatures (below 0°C) increases the internal pressure of the battery and possibly causes the safety valve to open.

In order to charge effectively, the ambient temperature range must be controlled between 5℃ to 30℃. Generally, charging efficiency increases with the rise of temperature. However, when the temperature rises above 45℃, the performance of the battery degrades, and the cycle life of the battery greatly shortens.

Under low temperatures, the viscosity of electrolyte becomes higher, the proton transfer rate inside the electrode becomes slower, and the ohmic internal resistance also increases, which leads to larger polarization of the battery during discharge. Some batteries cannot discharge at low temperatures due to large polarization.

Under high temperatures

Under high temperature, the viscosity of the electrolyte decreases, and the hydrophilic ability of various materials increases. Liquid absorption also increases, which leads to the expansion of the electrode sheet, and liquid starts to leak from poor electrical receptivity.

The following is the electrochemical principle of charging and discharging Ni-MH batteries with KOH as the electrolyte (7moL/LKOH+15g/LLiOH).


Positive Pole: Ni(OH)2+OH-→NiOOH+H2O+e-

Negative Pole: M+H2O+e-→MH+OH-

Total Response: M+Ni(OH)2→MH+NiOOH


Positive Pole: NiOOH+H2O+e-→Ni(OH)2+OH-

Negative Pole: MH+OH-→M+H2O+e-

Total Response: MH+NiOOH→M+Ni(OH)2

In the above formula, M is the hydrogen storage alloy and MH is the hydrogen storage alloy with adsorbed hydrogen atoms. The most commonly used hydrogen storage alloy is LaNi5.

Characteristics of a wide temperature-range Ni-MH battery

The following are a couple of the characteristics of a Grepow’s wide temperature-range Ni-MH battery:

The charging and discharging efficiency of 0.2C at -40℃ can reach 80%

The charging and discharging efficiency of 0.2C at 80℃ can reach 85%

Ni-MH battery technology has been tried, tested and proven for commercial and industrial applications especially in automotive batteries and outdoor power supplies in high and cold temperatures. Its safety and reliability are unparalleled in the market.

Grepow Inc. offers a variety of Ni-MH batteries with a wide temperature range. These batteries provide new electrode-development technologies that can achieve a long life, and they have good usability and stability with compatible sizes.

A render if what the DP World London Gateway project will look like when completely constructed, based on Fluence’s sixth-generation Gridstack system design. Image: InterGen.

The Department of Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) in the UK has given the green light to the country’s biggest ever battery storage project.

InterGen has gained planning permission for a 320MW / 640MWh lithium-ion battery site at DP World London Gateway, a new port and logistics centre on the Thames Estuary in Essex, south-east England. The £200 million (US$267 million) project will also have the potential for further expanding, as far as 1.3GWh.

Fluence is providing the technology for the site, having worked in partnership with InterGen for the past two years following a competitive tender process. The companies initially signed an exclusivity agreement for another project at Spalding, which was since been extended to the Gateway project.

According to the company, this puts it at 10 times the size of the largest battery currently operating in the UK. Indeed it will dwarf the UK’s biggest active project so far, the 50MW / 75MWh Thurcroft battery storage site in South Yorkshire, which was recently acquired by stock exchange listed specialist fund Gresham House Energy Storage.

In terms of international context, the world’s largest battery project already under development is Vistra Energy’s Moss Landing project in California, which is permitted for an eventual 400MW / 1,600MWh, to be built in phases. The world’s largest project in operation today is the Gateway project developed by LS Power, also in California. That project is currently at 230MW output and 230MWh capacity, as of August, with a futher expansion to 250MW / 250MWh already underway. Australian utility AGL recently said it is planning a 250MW battery storage project with up to 1,000MWh of capacity, while The Red Sea Development Company, developing a huge luxury resort in Saudi Arabia said last week that it plans to use 1,000MWh of battery storage to integrate local renewable energy resources.

With the share of renewables continuing to grow, the need to balance the grid through the use of technologies such as storage is continuing to grow alongside it. As such, InterGen’s battery – which is set to be used to support and stabilise existing electricity supplies – will represent a major piece of the system architecture.

Image: InterGen.

InterGen CEO Jim Lightfoot said the company was “delighted” to be granted consent for the Gateway project, as its mission was to deliver the “flexible electricity solutions” needed for a low carbon world.

“We are excited to be entering a new phase in our growth as an organisation, and will continue to explore opportunities to develop projects which can support the energy transition.”

Till recently, large scale energy storage projects were not possible in the UK, as planning legislation limited storage project to 50MW in England and 350MW in Wales. These were relaxed in July, to help increase flexibility.

InterGen’s storage project will become one of the largest in the world, topping the biggest single-site battery project currently, a 250MW site switched on in August in California by its developer, infrastructure company LS Power.

Construction of the DP Word London Gateway is expected to get under way in 2022, and the battery to become operational in 2024.

Additionally, InterGen is looking to develop another large scale battery project at its site in Spalding, Lincolnshire. This would be a 175MW / 350MWh site, and planning permission is already in place.

The Edinburgh-headquartered independent energy generator currently supplies around 5% of the UK’s generating capacity, with natural gas sites in Coryton in Essex (800MW), Spalding in Lincolnshire (1,250MW) and Rocksavage in Cheshire (810MW).

A version of this story for local audiences was first published on Solar Power Portal