The pursuit of greener energy also requires efficient rechargeable batteries to store that energy. While lithium-ion batteries are currently the most widely used, all-solid-state sodium batteries are attracting attention as sodium is far more plentiful than lithium. This should make  sodium battery less expensive, and solid-state batteries are thought to be safer, but processing issues mean mass production has been difficult.


Osaka Metropolitan University Associate Professor Atsushi Sakuda and Professor Akitoshi Hayashi, both of the Graduate School of Engineering, led a research team in developing a process that can lead to mass synthesis for sodium-containing sulfides. The results were published in Energy Storage Materials and Inorganic Chemistry.


Using sodium polysulfides (sulfides with two or more atoms of sulfur) as both the material and the flux, which promotes fusion, the team created a solid sulfide electrolyte with the world’s highest reported sodium ion conductivity—about 10 times higher than required for practical use—and a glass electrolyte with high reduction resistance.

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Mass synthesis of such electrolytes with high conductivity and formability is key to the practical use of all-solid-state sodium battery.


“This newly developed process is useful for the production of almost all sodium-containing sulfide materials, including solid electrolytes and electrode active materials,” Professor Sakuda said.


“Also, compared to conventional methods, this process makes it easier to obtain materials that display higher performance, so we believe it will become a mainstream process for the future development of materials for all-solid-state sodium batteries.”


More information: Akira Nasu et al, Utilizing reactive polysulfides flux Na2S for the synthesis of sulfide solid electrolytes for all-solid-state sodium batteries, Energy Storage Materials (2024). DOI: 10.1016/j.ensm.2024.103307


Tomoya Otono et al, High-Sodium-Concentration Sodium Oxythioborosilicate Glass Synthesized via Ambient Pressure Method with Sodium Polysulfides, Inorganic Chemistry (2024). DOI: 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.3c04101

Journal information: Inorganic Chemistry

Provided by Osaka Metropolitan University

If you have any question, please feel free to contact us:
Name: Dawn Zeng (Director)
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A sodium battery developed by researchers at The University of Texas at Austin significantly reduces fire risks from the technology, while also relying on inexpensive, abundant materials to serve as its building blocks.

Though battery fires are rare, increased battery usage means these incidents are on the rise.

The secret ingredient to this sodium battery breakthrough, published recently in Nature Energy, is a solid diluent. The researchers used a salt-based solid diluent in the electrolyte, facilitating the charge-discharge cycle. A specific type of salt—sodium nitrate—allowed the researchers to deploy just a single, nonflammable solvent in the electrolyte, stabilizing the battery as a whole.

Over time, the multiple liquid solvents in an electrolyte—the component that transfers charge-carrying ions between the battery’s two electrodes—react with other components in ways that degrade batteries and lead to safety risks. Sodium, an alternative to lithium that is one of the key ingredients in this battery, is highly reactive, posing a significant challenge to the adoption of these types of batteries. These reactions can lead to the growth of needle-like filaments called dendrites that can cause the battery to electrically short and even catch fire or explode.

“Batteries catch fire because the liquid solvents in the electrolyte don’t get along with other parts of the battery,” said Arumugam Manthiram, a professor in the Cockrell School of Engineering’s Walker Department of Mechanical Engineering and the lead researcher on the project. “We have reduced that risk from the equation to create a safer, more stable battery.”

In addition to the safety improvement, this new, sodium-based battery represents a less expensive alternative to the lithium-ion batteries that power smartphones, laptops, electric cars and more.

The battery also boasts strong performance. How long a battery lasts on a single charge tends to decline over time. The new sodium battery retained 80% of its capacity over 500 cycles, matching the standard of lithium-ion batteries in smartphones.

Future Batteries(Article illustrations)- Sodium Battery

“Here we show a sodium battery that is safe and inexpensive to produce, without losing out on performance,” Manthiram said. “It is critical to develop alternatives to lithium-ion batteries that are not just on par with them, but better.”

Though the researchers applied this technique to a sodium battery, they said it could also translate to lithium-ion-based cells, albeit with different materials.

Lithium mining is expensive and has been criticized for its environmental impacts, including heavy groundwater use, soil and water pollution and carbon emissions. By comparison, sodium is available in the ocean, is cheaper and is more environmentally friendly.

Lithium-ion batteries typically also use cobalt, which is expensive and mined mostly in Africa’s Democratic Republic of the Congo, where it has significant impacts on human health and the environment. In 2020, Manthiram demonstrated a novel, cobalt-free lithium-ion battery.

This battery is also free of cobalt, as well as lithium. The other components are made of 40% iron, 30% manganese and 30% nickel.

Other authors on the paper are Jiarui He, Amruth Bhargav, Laisuo Su, Julia Lamb and Woochul Shin—all from the Cockrell School’s Materials Science and Engineering program and Texas Materials Institute—and John Okasinski of Argonne National Laboratory.

More information: Jiarui He et al, Tuning the solvation structure with salts for stable sodium-metal batteries, Nature Energy (2024). DOI: 10.1038/s41560-024-01469-y

Provided by University of Texas at Austin


Himax - LiFePO4-Battery
Note: Most of the information in this article comes from the Solar Living Sourcebook.

Sunlight doesn’t just power your solar panels – it heats your batteries. With fewer hours of sunlight per day, winter is the time of year when it’s most important to make sure the energy storage component of an off-grid solar system or grid-tie solar system with battery backup is working efficiently. Unfortunately for those of us in the northern U.S. and Canada, winter can bring extreme cold, creating the worst environmental conditions for those deep-cycle batteries.

But just because deep cycle solar batteries have a harder time in cold temperatures doesn’t mean you need to suffer through the winter with them. Learning a few simple tricks to keep solar batteries warm in winter will substantially improve their performance during the part of the year in which you rely on them most.

Note: Lithium-ion and sealed lead acid batteries (AGM and gel cell) fare much better in cold weather than traditional flooded lead acid batteries do, and are now so safe that they can – and should – be installed indoors. If you’ve got these batteries and they’re installed indoors, you should have nothing to worry about when it comes to cold weather!

Why Are Cold Temperatures Bad for Solar Batteries?

First let’s clarify that cold temperatures are actually good for batteries when it comes to holding a charge; a battery placed in a refrigerator will self-discharge more slowly than the same battery in a warmer setting (and in fact, some people keep their household AA and 9V batteries in the fridge). Where cold becomes a detriment to batteries is in situations where charging and discharging is frequent and the cycles are deep – like in a renewable energy system. This is because cold slows down the chemical reactions that take place inside a battery as it supplies electrical current. Colder temperatures reduce current, which in turn lowers energy storage capacity.

The cold weather problem is compounded with deep cycle batteries used for solar storage because cold weather usually coincides with storms or the shorter days of winter. In both cases, PV production is lower due to the reduced number of sun hours, and the loads in the house are often higher due to active heating.

How Cold is “Cold” When it Comes to Solar Batteries?

Most batteries are rated at 77°F (25°C), meaning their technical specs are based on how the battery’s cells perform at 77 degrees. As a rule of thumb, batteries lose about 10% of their rated capacity for every 15-20 degrees below 80°F as measured in the cells.

How Can You Keep Your Solar Batteries Warm?

The best way to keep deep cycle solar batteries warm is simply to give them shelter and insulation. Let’s look at how to best do this, depending on what kind of deep cycle batteries you have.

How to Keep Lithium-Ion Solar Batteries Warm in Winter

Lithium-ion solar batteries can be safely installed inside your house, meaning the “shelter” and “insulation” boxes are already checked and no additional action needs to be taken. However, if they are installed someplace where there’s a risk of freezing, special care must be taken because – while they can safely discharge in temperatures as low 0°F (-18°C) – lithium-ion batteries should never be charged in sub-freezing temperatures (below 32°F or 0°C).

Nearly all lithium-ion solar batteries on the market today include at least a basic built-in battery management system (BMS) that can activate an external heating source when ambient temperatures approach freezing, ensuring the battery’s environment stays warm enough for safe charging. A few more advanced lithium batteries even have internal heaters that are managed by their BMS.

How to Keep Flooded Lead Acid Solar Batteries Warm in Winter

Even though flooded – or “wet cell” – lead acid batteries can charge at lower temperatures than lithium-ion batteries (as low as -4°F or -20°C), they typically require the most attention in winter because they cannot be installed inside your house where temperatures are nicely regulated. (When in use these batteries release hydrogen gas – which is explosive at even a modest 4% concentration.)

Instead, flooded lead acid batteries should be kept inside a battery box or enclosure with 2″ holes near the top and bottom for ventilation. If the enclosure is inside an insulated garage or shed, they most likely won’t need any extra help staying warm. But if the enclosure itself is not in an insulated area, it should be “reinforced” with insulation and thermal mass to stabilize temperature swings. Because the batteries generate a bit of heat when they are charging, the insulation will keep that heat inside the enclosure, keeping the batteries warmer.

Simply get a sheet or two of rigid foam insulation from your local hardware store:

  • Do a quick internet search for the proper R-value of insulation you should buy based on where you’ll be using it
  • Insulation rated for use below grade use is best because it is moisture resistant

Diagram of an insulated outdoor enclosure for flooded lead acid batteries

Wires and cables pass through wall at bottom of battery box to prevent hydrogen from entering the house (hydrogen rises).

When installing insulation in your battery enclosure:

  • Cut the sheet to size with a circular saw, or score it with a utility knife and snap it over an edge for a clean cut
  • Leave an inch or two between the batteries and the insulation (and a little space between the batteries themselves) to allow air to circulate and keep temperatures as uniform as possible across all the batteries
  • Don’t cover your ventilation holes
  • Don’t permanently adhere the insulation to the enclosure – you’ll want to remove it when the weather warms up so the batteries don’t overheat in the summer

How to Keep AGM/Sealed Lead Acid Solar Batteries Warm in Winter

Like lithium-ion batteries, sealed lead acid batteries (AGM and gel cell) are safe enough to be installed indoors, giving you a huge leg up on temperature regulation. Also working in your favor is the fact that sealed battery cells freeze at lower temperatures than flooded/wet cells do. It’s best to check the manufacturer’s specs for your specific batteries regarding minimum charging and discharging temperatures. If your batteries are going to be exposed to temperatures lower than the minimums listed by the manufacturers, the same techniques suggested for lithium-ion and flooded lead acid batteries can be used to keep your sealed-cell batteries warm enough for safe use (insulated enclosure and a BMS/heater).

Tools and Tech to Help Keep Solar Batteries Healthy in Winter

MPPT Charge Control Technology

A charge controller with maximum power point tracking (MPPT) technology is probably already part of your battery-based solar system, but those short winter days are when you’ll be happiest to have it. MPPT solar charge controllers squeeze 15-30% more power out of a PV array on average than non-MPPT controllers by converting excess PV voltage into amperage. MPPT controllers perform best with cold PV modules and hungry batteries (sounds like winter conditions!), and can adjust the battery voltage based on battery temperature to help the cells reach 100% state of charge.

Battery Temperature Sensor

A battery temperature sensor can provide an early warning if battery temperatures drop below recommended levels. Some charge controllers will stop charging at certain low temperatures.

Battery Management Systems (BMS)

A battery management system includes functions beyond just temperature sensing, typically including features like voltage and depth of discharge at both the cell and battery bank level. This level of insight can help you identify problem areas in your battery bank, some of which may be cold-related.

A BMS is an absolute necessity for lithium-ion solar batteries (to prevent overcharging and thermal runaway), but most Li-ion batteries on the market today already have a BMS built in.

Battery Desulphators

These deep cycle battery maintenance tools simply connect to the battery terminals and then work automatically to remove lead sulphate buildup on the plates. Lead sulphate will otherwise build up on the plates over time, reducing a lead acid battery’s capacity and ultimately shortening its life. When you’re already contending with cold weather reducing battery capacity during the winter, you don’t need sulphate buildup compounding the problem.

Battery desulphator

Keep the Water Topped Off

It is important year-round to not let your flooded lead acid batteries go dry. In winter it’s especially critical to make sure there is plenty of water in them. A battery with low water levels is more likely to freeze.

Likewise, keep them charged up. The acid in the water prevents freezing, so a battery with a low charge is more likely to freeze than a charged one.

Adding More Battery Storage

Sometimes all the tricks in the book just aren’t enough to keep an older lead acid battery bank powerful enough to get you through the winter comfortably. Over time, batteries age and their capacity falls, and we add more electric loads to our homes. Sometimes the best way to combat the problem of cold weather limiting your batteries’ performance is to simply add capacity with a couple of new deep cycle lead acid batteries.

Winter or Not, Don’t Forget to Perform Regular Maintenance on Your Lead Acid Deep Cycle Batteries

For lithium-ion and sealed cell lead acid batteries (AGM and gel cell), a simple annual maintenance routine of cleaning the tops of the batteries with baking soda and water (then rinsing with water), and then cleaning/tightening the terminals is sufficient.



Himax Solar Battery

There are certain specifications you should use when evaluating your solar battery options, such as how long the solar battery will last or how much power it can provide. Below, learn about all of the criteria that you should use to compare your home energy storage options, as well as the different types of solar batteries.

How to compare your solar storage options

As you consider your solar-plus-storage options, you’ll come across a lot of complicated product specifications. The most important ones to use during your evaluation are the battery’s capacity & power ratings, depth of discharge (DoD), round-trip efficiency, warranty, and manufacturer.

Capacity & power

Capacity is the total amount of electricity that a solar battery can store, measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh). Most home solar batteries are designed to be “stackable,” which means that you can include multiple batteries with your solar-plus-storage system to get extra capacity.

While capacity tells you how big your battery is, it doesn’t tell you how much electricity a battery can provide at a given moment. To get the full picture, you also need to consider the battery’s power rating. In the context of solar batteries, a power rating is the amount of electricity that a battery can deliver at one time. It is measured in kilowatts (kW).

A battery with a high capacity and a low power rating would deliver a low amount of electricity (enough to run a few crucial appliances) for a long time. A battery with low capacity and a high power rating could run your entire home, but only for a few hours.

Depth of discharge (DoD)

Most solar batteries need to retain some charge at all times due to their chemical composition. If you use 100 percent of a battery’s charge, its useful life will be significantly shortened.

The depth of discharge (DoD) of a battery refers to the amount of a battery’s capacity that has been used. Most manufacturers will specify a maximum DoD for optimal performance. For example, if a 10 kWh battery has a DoD of 90 percent, you shouldn’t use more than 9 kWh of the battery before recharging it. Generally speaking, a higher DoD means you will be able to utilize more of your battery’s capacity.

Himax Solar Battery

Round-trip efficiency

A battery’s round-trip efficiency represents the amount of energy that can be used as a percentage of the amount of energy that it took to store it. For example, if you feed five kWh of electricity into your battery and can only get four kWh of useful electricity back, the battery has 80 percent round-trip efficiency (4 kWh / 5 kWh = 80%). Generally speaking, a higher round-trip efficiency means you will get more economic value out of your battery.

Battery life & warranty

For most uses of home energy storage, your battery will “cycle” (charge and drain) daily. The battery’s ability to hold a charge will gradually decrease the more you use it. In this way, solar batteries are like the battery in your cell phone – you charge your phone each night to use it during the day, and as your phone gets older you’ll start to notice that the battery isn’t holding as much of a charge as it did when it was new. For example, a battery might be warrantied for 5,000 cycles or 10 years at 70 percent of its original capacity. This means that at the end of the warranty, the battery will have lost no more than 30 percent of its original ability to store energy.

Your solar battery will have a warranty that guarantees a certain number of cycles and/or years of useful life. Because battery performance naturally degrades over time, most manufacturers will also guarantee that the battery keeps a certain amount of its capacity over the course of the warranty. Therefore, the simple answer to the question “how long will my solar battery last?” is that it depends on the brand of battery you buy and and how much capacity it will lose over time.


Many different types of organizations are developing and manufacturing solar battery products, from automotive companies to tech startups. While a major automotive company entering the energy storage market likely has a longer history of product manufacturing, they may not offer the most revolutionary technology. By contrast, a tech startup might have a brand-new high-performing technology, but less of a track record to prove the battery’s long-term functionality.

Whether you choose a battery manufactured by a cutting-edge startup or a manufacturer with a long history depends on your priorities. Evaluating the warranties associated with each product can give you additional guidance as you make your decision.


How long do solar batteries last?

There are two ways to answer this question and the first is to determine how long a solar battery can power your home. In many cases, a fully charged battery can run your home overnight when your solar panels are not producing energy. To make a more exact calculation, you’ll need to know a few variables, including how much energy your household consumes in a given day, what the capacity and power rating is for your solar battery and whether or not you are connected to the electric grid.

For the sake of a simple example, we’ll determine the size of a battery needed to provide an adequate solar plus storage solution with national average data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The average U.S. household will use roughly 30 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of energy per day and a typical solar battery can deliver some 10 kWh of capacity. Thus a very simple answer would be, if you purchased three solar batteries, you could run your home for an entire day with nothing but battery support.

12V 100AH

In reality, the answer is more complicated than that. You will also be generating power with your solar panel system during the day which will offer strong power for some 6-7 hours of the day during peak sunlight hours. On the other end, most batteries cannot run at maximum capacity and generally peak at a 90% DoD (as explained above). As a result, your 10 kWh battery likely has a useful capacity of 9 kWh.

Ultimately, if you are pairing your battery with a solar PV array, one or two batteries can provide sufficient power during nighttime when your panels are not producing. However, without a renewable energy solution, you may need 3 batteries or more to power your entire home for 24 hours. Additionally, if you are installing home energy storage in order to disconnect from the electric grid, you should install a few days’ worth of backup power to account for days where you might have cloudy weather.


Solar battery lifespan

The general range for a solar battery’s useful lifespan is between 5 and 15 years. If you install a solar battery today, you will likely need to replace it at least once to match the 25 to 30 year lifespan of your PV system. However, just as the lifespan of solar panels has increased significantly in the past decade, it is expected that solar batteries will follow suit as the market for energy storage solutions grows.

Proper maintenance can also have a significant effect on your solar battery’s lifespan. Solar batteries are significantly impacted by temperature, so protecting your battery from freezing or sweltering temperatures can increase its useful life. When a PV battery drops below 30° F, it will require more voltage to reach maximum charge; when that same battery rises above the 90° F threshold, it will become overheated and require a reduction in charge. To solve this problem, many leading battery manufacturers, like Tesla, provide temperature moderation as a feature. However, if the battery that you buy does not, you will need to consider other solutions like earth-sheltered enclosures. Quality maintenance efforts can definitely impact how long your solar battery will last.


What are the best batteries for solar?

Batteries used in home energy storage typically are made with one of three chemical compositions: lead acid, lithium ion, and saltwater. In most cases, lithium ion batteries are the best option for a solar panel system, though other battery types can be more affordable.

1. Lead acid

Lead acid batteries are a tested technology that has been used in off-grid energy systems for decades. While they have a relatively short life and lower DoD than other battery types, they are also one of the least expensive options currently on the market in the home energy storage sector. For homeowners who want to go off the grid and need to install lots of energy storage, lead acid can be a good option.


2. Lithium ion

The majority of new home energy storage technologies, such as the , use some form of lithium ion chemical composition. Lithium ion batteries are lighter and more compact than lead acid batteries. They also have a higher DoD and longer lifespan when compared to lead acid batteries.  However, lithium ion batteries are more expensive than their lead acid counterparts.


3. Saltwater

A newcomer in the home energy storage industry is the saltwater battery. Unlike other home energy storage options, saltwater batteries don’t contain heavy metals, relying instead on saltwater electrolytes. While batteries that use heavy metals, including lead acid and lithium ion batteries, need to be disposed of with special processes, a saltwater battery can be easily recycled. However, as a new technology, saltwater batteries are relatively untested, and the one company that makes solar batteries for home use (Aquion) filed for bankruptcy in 2017.


  • Find the best solar battery for your home

51.2V 100Ah LiFePO4 Battery

12V 150Ah LiFePO4 Battery

12V 120Ah LiFePO4 Battery


solar battery

Solar lights can use different kind of battery types. Below we shall explain you different kinds of rechargeable battery which one can use in solar lights.


Lead–acid battery and SMF.

lithium ion battery or Li-ion.

lithium ion battery phosphate or LiFePO4.


Because of the price advantage people widely use lead acid batteries. It is inexpensive compared to new technologies batteries. But there are many disadvantages compared to Li-ion an LifePO4. It need regular maintenance, Risk of explosion is more, there are lot of environment concerns as it contains lead and it will be difficult to handle extreme weather conditions. Life of the battery is around 3 – 4 years.


Two of the biggest disadvantage of using lead acid battery is it needs a bigger solar panel for charging and size of battery is bigger and will require lot of space. Solar panel will have to generate at least 12 V to charge the battery. That means during cloudy days it will be difficult to generate 12 V.



Li-ion battery is compact and priced higher compared to Lead-acid battery. It requires 3.7 V of power for charging. That means solar panel size will be smaller. During cloudy days’ solar panel can generate 3.7 V and these batteries will easily charge.


These batteries require no maintenance and life of battery will be 5 – 6 years. Only disadvantage is there might be chances of explosion in extreme weather. Li-ion batteries efficiency reduces during Very high or very low temperatures.



LiFePO4 battery is compact and priced higher compared to Li-ion. It is most advanced battery type currently available in market. It requires 3.2 V of power for charging. That means solar panel size can be smaller. During cloudy days’ solar panel can generate 3.2 V and these batteries will easily charge.


These batteries require no maintenance and life of battery will be 9 – 12 years. Advantages of using this battery is it can with stand extreme weather conditions. Hence this is most safer battery.


Usage of Batteries in Solar Lights.

Lead acid batteries are widely in usage for home lighting system and emergency solar lights. Usage of Li-ion and LiFeP04 batteries are in integrated solar light system. All in One lights like, Solar Garden Lights, Solar Street Light, Solar Flood Lights etc. uses these battery types.


Solar Home Lighting System :

Home Lighting system requires bigger battery capacity. Bigger battery means more price.  Hence in India people use LED acid batteries. These batteries are manufactured in India unlike Li-ion and LiFeP04 batteries are imported.  These batteries require regular maintenance the life span in less compared to other batteries types.


Solar Street Light and Solar Garden Lights:

All the three batteries are available for solar street lights. People have started switching to Li-ion and LiFeP04 batteries for street lights. Li-ion and LiFeP04 batteries are not manufactured in India, It is imported from China, Japan or Taiwan. India has started research on development of Li-ion cell in 2018. Once they start manufacturing these batteries product cost is go down by 20%.

Solar Battery

Top Benefits of Solar Battery Storage for Your Home

If you have solar panels or are looking to install solar panels, you want to get the most out of your energy system. Installing solar battery storage for excess electricity generated by your panels is one great way to improve your electricity generation system’s performance throughout the day. Here are the top benefits of solar battery storage.

Power When You Need It
One of the biggest problems with solar panels is that they only produce electricity when there’s light outside. Usually, this is when you’re not at home because of daytime activities like work and kid’s sports. Clouds and shade can also reduce the output of solar panels, causing your home to have to draw off the grid if it’s using too much electricity. With a battery, the energy that your solar panels create that isn’t used at the time of its generation gets stored. You can use the stored energy at night or doing those cloudy times when you’re at home without having to draw off the grid.
Solar Battery

Energy Security

The ability to store energy allows you to be less dependent on the grid for additional power. If you live in a place that experiences frequent brownouts or has a decaying energy infrastructure, solar batteries can help insulate you from the consequences of poor grid management. You move to greater self-sufficiency and are more in control of your energy destiny. This is great for people who are looking to get off the grid.

Better for the Environment

Most electricity on the grid is generated through coal plants and other fossil fuels. Storing your energy allows you to use the most environmentally friendly energy available. Your solar power system will continue to use fewer resources throughout the year while producing little to no waste and pollution. Because of advances in photovoltaic technology, panels create less pollution than fossil fuels during their comparative lifetime uses.

A Quiet Solution

No one wants to have to deal with the roar of a generator as it coughs to life. Even a gentle hum can be disturbing for those who are noise sensitive. Unlike noisy generators run by fossil fuels, solar batteries are silent. You don’t have to worry about trying to sleep at night or annoying the neighbors. You get all the benefits of instant electricity with none of the local pollution—both noise and air—produced by a generator. You also don’t have to store flammable or explosive fuel at your home, so you can enjoy your home and breathe easier—literally and figuratively.


Lower Electrical Bills

In some places, the electric utility is required to buy back any energy that you create in excess of what you use. While this results in a lower electric bill for you, using solar storage systems also results in a reduction of your energy bill because you consume less energy from the grid. Generally, the buyback is less than what the energy is sold for, so you get more for your money when you can store and use your own energy. Contact the experts at The Himax battery by visiting and learn more about the solar battery.


Solar Battery

Solar batteries are an offshoot of the solar panel industry. With the increase in demand for solar panels for a solar energy system, new technology was born…

solar batteries. These batteries are used to store excess power generated by solar panels. But, how do solar batteries work?

Before going into the workings of a solar battery, it is best to learn first about the solar energy system.

The Solar Energy System

A common solar energy system is made up of solar panels, inverter, power or utility meter to determine the amount of electricity produced and tools for mounting the panels. Solar batteries are an adjunct of the system.

Many of the residential solar energy users are connected to a power or utility grid. When their solar panels are producing more than enough electricity, the surplus is fed into the utility grid. When the solar panels are not producing enough electricity that the home needs, they also can draw from the grid.

A power meter is used to measure what has been fed back and how much has been drawn from the grid. A net metering system is used to keep track of this transactions.

How does the solar energy system work

Solar panels are installed on top of roofs, on a pole or even on the ground. These panels are made of cells that harvest the sun’s’ energy which is called photons. When photons hit the cells in a solar panel, they are converted into electrons or what we call direct current (DC) electricity.

The direct current (DC) then flows from the solar panels to the inverter, and the inverter converts them into alternating current (AC). Households need AC to light up the home and to run home appliances.

Ways to Work Solar Batteries is…

Solar batteries make sure that when you need power, there will be power even when the sun is not shining. It is actually referred to as solar-plus storage.

What solar batteries do is to store surplus energy generated from the solar panels. Homes with solar batteries can accumulate excess solar power that can be used later when there is no more sun, such as at night, when the light is most needed.

Solar batteries have their own inverter that converts DC to AC. As they draw DC power from the solar panels, this is converted into AC. The electricity in excess of what the home needs charge the batteries. Homes connected to the grid only send excess electricity to the grid once the batteries are fully charged.

Solar batteries also double as a backup power source when there is power interruption in the community, although for short periods of time only.

So, how do solar batteries works? Easy! It converts DC electricity to AC for home use to operate household appliances. And whatever excess electricity is generated from the solar panels are stored in these batteries to be used or drawn out when needed, such as at nighttime when there is no more sun.



The solar battery lifespan is a very essential factor that needs to be put into consideration by the manufacturers to ensure their batteries are reliable, durable and facilitate the production of energy. The design alone should enable them to resist could and heat cycles.

Therefore, various manufacturers need to have extensive knowledge regarding the solar batteries by ensuring proper steps are followed in order to increase their lifespan. The type of battery should also not be left out.
What You Should Understand?
Solar batteries have many factors and technical details that need to be taken into consideration when sizing up the backup required for a system. Battery system sizing also allows for a long life of service.

What Factor Could Affect the Lifespan of a Battery?
There are different types of batteries, where some are more durable compared to others despite having the same source of power. There are 3 main factors which may affect the durability of solar batteries. Some of them include cyclic life, their temperature, and depth of discharge.
The Cyclic Life
The lifespan of solar battery can easily be determined through its cyclic life or the number of use cycles it has. For example, a lead-acid battery which is flooded is expected to provide 300 to 700 cycles. A GEL cell battery is capable of providing 500 to 5000 cycles. Lithium batteries are capable of offering 2000 cycles.

Depth of Discharge (DoD)
The depth of discharge refers to the extent to which a solar battery can be used relatively to its total capacity. Batteries go down as they are discharged or charged. This, therefore, lowers their ability to store more energy. A battery that comes alongside a nominal capacity of 100 kWh at 60 % DoD will have a remaining charge of 40 kWh

A battery attains higher chemical activity when kept under high temperatures. This makes the solar batteries less efficient in colder climates. However, the cyclic life of a battery decreases with the increase in temperature.

How to Increase the Battery Lifespan?
Despite to design of the solar battery, it may not provide longer services if not properly maintained. The following are steps involved in extending its lifespan.
Regulate the Number of Batteries
Try to lower the number of batteries used at the bank. Use of several batteries may increase resistance and connection that is likely to result into unequal charging. Therefore, regulate the number of batteries used in your bank up to 4 or maybe less.

Enhance Equalization on Solar Batteries
Equalization of battery refers to the overcharging process of your solar batteries at a regulated manner. Unequal charging results to plate’s sulphation. Overcharging gets rid of this through gassing. There are those solar batteries that are built with a solar charge controller to suppress overcharging.
Ensure Solar Batteries do not go Uncharged for a Long Time
Solar batteries are likely to be damaged if they sit for a long time in storage. You need to ensure your source of charging is always turned on to enable the battery charge continuously to facilitate a continuous solar light.

Make use of the Appropriate Solar Batteries
Batteries sized appropriately for the application will ensure a long lifespan. Lithium batteries are starting to build up steam since they have a long lifespan and are safer and conducive for the environment. However, GEL cell batteries are still the battery of choice because of their proven life, typically five to seven years in the field when sized properly. GEL cell batteries are still a fraction of the cost of Lithium battery technology, but they are starting to become more and more cost-effective as technologies improve and their share of the market increases. Make sure the kind of battery you use has a voltage rating of 12.8V or 25.6V to make sure it lasts longer.

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