UN38.3 Battery

Anyone who has ever dealt with lithium batteries knows the demanding process for transportation. Lithium cells and batteries are classified as dangerous goods class 9 and thus are on a par with liquid nitrogen. The requirements for safe transport are correspondingly high.

UN38.3 Battery

Whether by rail, road or air, the eligibility of lithium cell or battery shipments is regulated by the transport test 38.3 of the United Nations. A shipment is only permitted if the following eight individual tests are passed.

 

1) Altitude Simulation

This test simulates the environmental conditions prevailing in the cargo hold of an aircraft at an altitude of up to 15,000 meters. The battery is exposed to an extremely low air pressure of 11.6 kilopascal for a total of six hours. The test is passed if:

 

the battery shows no loss of mass

the overpressure valve of the battery remains closed

the battery housing is free of cracks or leaks,

the voltage level of the battery differs from the initial value by a maximum of 10% after completion of the test.

2) Thermal Test

If the altitude simulation has been successfully completed, the next step is to check the behavior of the lithium battery in case of strong temperature fluctuations. This stresses the battery seals and internal electrical connections. The batteries are initially stored for at least six hours at a surrounding temperature of 72 degrees Celsius. The temperature is then lowered to -40 degrees Celsius for a further six hours. This test procedure, for which Jauch uses a specially designed thermal shock chamber, must be carried out over 10 complete cycles. Finally, the batteries are stored at room temperature for at least another twelve hours. The test is passed when all the criteria mentioned under 1) have been met.

 

3) Vibration Test

The third part of the UN 38.3 transport test puts the battery in a vibration generator, where the battery is subjected to frequencies between 7 and 200 Hertz. The test is designed for a total of three hours and simulates the typical jerking in the hold of a truck while driving. The criteria mentioned under 1) also apply in this case.

 

4) Impact Test

Just like the vibration test, the impact test also serves to prevent possible damage to the battery by rough transport. Depending on the size of the lithium battery, impacts of 150G/6mS or 50G/11mS affect the housing. Just as in the vibration test, the criteria listed under 1) apply here as well.

 

5) External Short Circuit Test

For this test, the battery is first heated from the outside to a temperature of 57 degrees Celsius before an external short-circuit is caused. As a result, the battery temperature rises, but must not exceed 170 degrees Celsius. Once the battery has cooled down to 57 degrees again, the short-circuit condition must remain for another 60 minutes. The test is only passed if neither flames, cracks nor other damage to the battery housing are detected for up to six hours afterwards.

 

6) Impact and Crush Test

This test is carried out at cell level and simulates external damage to the cells that can occur because of a strong impact, such as a traffic accident. For this purpose, depending on the cell type and shape, a stamp with a precisely defined size and press depth is pressed into the cells. Damaged in this way, an internal short-circuit can occur in the cell. The test is passed if, as with the external short-circuit test, the housing temperature does not exceed 170 degrees Celsius at any time and no signs of cracks or similar appear on the housing up to six hours after the test.

 

7) Overcharging Test

The UN 38.3 transport test prescribes an overcharge test for all rechargeable lithium batteries. For 24 hours, twice the maximum permissible charging current is applied to the battery. The battery must then be stored in a secure area for seven days. No damage may occur during this period for the battery to pass.

 

8) Fast Discharge Test

The final test is also carried out at cell level. The cell is subjected to a discharge current exceeding the permitted maximum. This procedure is repeated several times. As with overcharging, rapid discharge must not damage the battery in any way in order to successfully pass this test.

 

According to UN 38.3, a battery may not be shipped by rail, road or air until it has passed each of these eight test procedures.

3.7V Lipo battery

3.7V Lipo battery

A standardized battery fits into any compatible compartment –after all, that’s why standards are defined. Depending on the application, however, button cells and cylindrical batteries reach their limits.

 

A Smartwatch, for example, has a significantly higher energy consumption than an ordinary wristwatch. A simple button cell is therefore far from sufficient to cover the device’s power requirements. However, the case of the watch is far too small for a powerful lithium-ion battery. Only a lithium polymer battery is capable of meeting the specific requirements of a Smartwatch.

 

Flexible product design

Lithium polymer technology is a match to lithium ion batteries in terms of performance, but is much more flexible in terms of design and size. The reason for this is the absence of a solid metal housing, as is common with lithium-ion batteries. Instead, the cells are merely enclosed by a thin layer of plastic-laminated aluminum foil. Thanks to the sandwich-like structure of the battery cells, even curved or ultra-flat designs with a thickness of less than one millimeter are conceivable.

 

For product developers and designers, the great flexibility of Lithium-Polymer batteries is a blessing. Conversely, the new design freedom can also lead to uncertainty. It is therefore advisable to take battery developers such as Jauch Quartz GmbH on board at an early stage for new developments.

 

The following six parameters must be defined at an early stage if design-in is to be successful.

 

1) Voltage

The average single cell voltage for lithium polymer cells is 3.6 volts as standard. The switch-off voltage is 3.0 volts and the maximum charging voltage is 4.2 volts. If a higher voltage is required, several cells can be connected in series. A parallel connection of several cells also makes it possible to increase the capacity.

 

2) Currents

In addition to the voltage, the current requirement of the application must also be defined. The average continuous currents must be specified as well as the maximum pulse currents and pulse lengths. The inrush currents and their lengths must also be taken into account.

 

3) Temperature

In connection with the current power load profiles of the application, the temperatures at which they are used must also be taken into consideration. By default, lithium polymer cells are designed for a temperature range between -20 and 60 degrees Celsius. Temperatures between 0 and 45 degrees Celsius should prevail when charging the cells.

 

Special cells are available for use under extreme temperature conditions above or below this range.

 

4) Dimensions of the Battery Compartment

Of course, the dimensions of the battery compartment must also be defined in advance. It is important to remember that lithium polymer cells expand over time. This “swelling” phenomenon is responsible for the cells to become up to 10% thicker over time. Accordingly, the battery compartment should be generously dimensioned. In addition, sharp edges or the like in the immediate vicinity of the battery compartment must be avoided at all costs so that the battery is not damaged.

 

5) Capacity

The capacity of a battery indicates the amount of electrical charge that a battery can store or release. Capacity is determined by voltage, current consumption, temperature and the available space in the battery compartment.

 

6) Safety

To protect lithium polymer batteries from overcharging, deep discharge or short circuits, they are equipped with individually programmable protection electronics. In order to optimally adapt this so-called “battery management system” to the respective application, individual switch-off values for the system are defined.

 

In addition, batteries must meet certain norms and safety standards to ensure that the applications are approved. Strict regulations apply here – understandably – especially in the field of medical technology.

 

Based on these six parameters, Jauch’s battery experts will find the right lithium polymer battery solution for every application. In order to guarantee optimum results, however, contact should be made as early as possible in the design-in phase. Otherwise, the desired battery solution may not be available or feasible.

 

In addition to these six parameters, there are many other factors that play a role in the selection of the optimum lithium polymer battery solution.

By and large, lithium batteries bring a wide range of different benefits to the table that are difficult – if not impossible – to replicate in any other way. Also commonly referred to as lithium-metal batteries (due to the fact that they use lithium as an anode), they’re typically capable of offering a very high-charge density (read: longer lifespan) than other alternatives that are on the market today.

For that reason alone, lithium batteries have a wide range of applications in our daily lives, especially for those critical in nature that we tend not to spend too much time thinking about. Specialized types of lithium batteries are used in pacemakers and other implanted medical devices, for example, because they can often last 15 years (or longer) under the right circumstances. They’ve even started to replace traditional alkaline batteries in many everyday devices like clocks, digital cameras, watches, portable data assistants, and more, all thanks to that longer lifespan that minimizes the need to replace the battery over time.

LITHIUM BATTERIES: CYLINDRICAL VERSUS PRISMATIC

Example of cylindrical lithium batteries.

Issues like mechanical vibrations, thermal cycling from charging and discharging, and the mechanical expansion of current conductors are all things that can affect a battery’s lifespan. Therefore, the design of these cylindrical units is intended to help mitigate risk from these and other factors as much as possible.

 

On the inside of a cylindrical battery, a series of cells are combined and operate in parallel to one another. This is done to help increase both the voltage and the overall capacity of the battery pack.

 

For these reasons, cylindrical batteries are usually the kind that are found in the aforementioned medical device systems. Smaller, more specially designed cylindrical cells are also commonly found in portable devices like laptop computers. Notably, Tesla also made headlines recently by selecting cylindrical lithium batteries to power its fleet of popular electric cars.

 

What Are Prismatic Lithium Batteries?

A prismatic lithium battery, on the other hand, features a cell that has been encased in either aluminum or steel, mainly for the purposes of increased stability. This, in turn, creates several key advantages right out of the gate. Because of this unique construction and makeup, prismatic lithium batteries tend to be very thin, very light and offer an effective use of space.

Example of prismatic lithium batteries.

 

Because the rectangular shape of your average prismatic Li battery offers far better layering than other options, they typically give engineers a higher level of flexibility when designing products that will one day feature prismatic batteries as power sources. Because of that, it should come as no surprise that prismatic batteries are typically found in smartphones, tablets, and similar types of electronic devices where mobility is a major priority.

 

Due to these properties, modern day prismatic batteries are also commonly used in larger critical applications like energy storage systems and in electric powertrains.

 

Cylindrical Versus Prismatic Batteries: Breaking Things Down

There’s a reason why cylindrical lithium batteries are the most commonly available (and used) type today. When compared to their prismatic counterparts, they can typically be produced much faster and with a lower cost-per-KWh (kilowatt hour) at the same time. The design itself better supports the types of automation processes that are commonplace in factories and in other manufacturing environments across the country, for example, which only aid in creating a better sense of product consistency and keeping those ultimate costs as low as possible.

 

One of the major reasons why prismatic cells have increased in popularity over the last few years, however, has to do with their large capacity. That, coupled with their naturally prismatic shape, make it very easy to connect four different cells together to help create something like a 12-volt battery pack.

 

The prismatic design does come with its own challenges, however, particularly as they relate to what happens if something goes wrong. If one cell in a prismatic battery goes bad for any reason, for example, the entire battery pack that it is a part of is essentially compromised. Because the cells in a cylindrical battery are combined in a series and in parallel, these are the types of problems that designers and other engineers don’t really have to worry about.

 

Because of the design of cylindrical Li batteries, they also tend to radiate heat (and thus control their own temperature) more easily than their prismatic counterparts. Because of the way that prismatic cells are all placed together, this certainly works to increase the capacity, but it also leaves room for a higher probability of design inconsistency and short circuiting. The larger size of the prismatic cell may also be attractive in certain situations, but it also minimizes the chances that such a battery could be used in a heavily automated environment. That larger cell size also creates perhaps the biggest disadvantage for prismatic batteries: the increased capacity makes it far more difficult for the battery management system to properly regulate heat and prevent the battery itself from overcharging.

 

As previously stated, the thin form factor of a prismatic battery leads to increased flexibility for product designers – this does, however, create a few disadvantages of its own. It is that very same design that ultimately makes prismatic batteries somewhat difficult and expensive to properly design and manufacturer, which are costs that are almost certainly passed along to consumers. That flexibility has also created a limited number of “standardized” cell sizes, which only adds to difficulty in that regard. This also contributes to a higher than average KWh price as well.

 

It’s important to note, however, that the topic of costs is also one that comes with a few important caveats. Experts agree that because prismatic cells can often be larger than their cylindrical counterparts and will thus cost more initially, they offer more opportunity for cost reduction in the long-term. Based on that, you may want to think about the cost factor in the following way: is it more important to save money now by going cylindrical, or can you depend on your ability to innovate and potentially save a larger amount of money over time? The answer to that question, of course, is one that only you can answer based on whatever it is you’re trying to do.

 

Maybe the biggest advantage of cylindrical batteries in most situations is that they are very safe. If the internal pressure of a cylindrical lithium battery grows too high, most of the cells are designed to rupture – thus mitigating safety risks from situations like a fire or an explosion.

 

In The End

None of this is to say that cylindrical lithium batteries are inherently “better” than their prismatic counterparts, or vice versa. As is often the case with these types of situations, there is no “one-size-fits-all” approach to battery selection. Much of your decision will ultimately come down to the eventual application and the amount of risks and potential disadvantages that you’re willing to accept as a result. There will be some situations where a prismatic battery absolutely makes the most sense. There will be situations where cylindrical batteries seem like the logical choice.

 

More often than not, choosing the right type of lithium battery to meet your needs will come down to three factors:

 

The amount of money you’re willing to pay, the effectiveness of the battery you’re trying to unlock, and the safety considerations given the application.

If space isn’t necessarily at a premium and you need to find a cost-effective way to guarantee both performance and longevity, cylindrical batteries offer what you need.

If cost isn’t a factor and you need as much power as possible in an already small space, prismatic is likely the direction you’ll want to head in.

Only by trying to learn as much about these options as possible will you be able to make the best decision given your needs in the moment. Ultimately, your ability to do that successfully is all that matters.

Written by Anton Beck
Posted on August 16, 2019 at 9:03 AM

 Within the context of a discussion about batteries, defining the term “state of charge” is simple. It’s a term that essentially refers to how “full” your battery is, at least in terms of its remaining energy. Compared to how much energy a battery can store at 100%, your current state of charge shows you how much is remaining, thus allowing you to predict when a recharge may be in order.

The larger implications of that term, however, are far less straightforward.

If you truly want to get the most out of your battery and make sure that it lasts as long as possible, there are a few key things about concepts like charge/discharge cycles, End of Life and more that you’ll definitely want to know more about.

Learn How To Expedite Your Battery Pack Design & Development

Charge And Discharge Cycles: Breaking Things Down

At its core, a “charge/discharge cycle” is exactly what it sounds like – a situation where the energy in a battery is discharged before subsequently being charged back up again.

It’s important to note that rarely does this ever mean taking a battery from 100% capacity to 0% and back again. Instead, most manufacturers use an 80% DoD (depth of discharge) formula for a battery’s overall rating. This means that roughly 80% of the available energy in a battery is delivered, while about 20% remains in reserve. Using this technique is an efficient way to increase a battery’s overall service life, prolonging its lifespan significantly in many applications.

 

The expected charge and discharge cycles for a battery depend less on the battery chemistry and more on the overall capacity of the battery itself. The only real difference has to do with when a full charge must be applied. For lead acid batteries, for example, a full charge should be applied every few weeks (or at least every few months) because a constant low charge will ultimately cause sulfation and damage the unit. With nickel-based batteries, a partial charge is totally acceptable. With lithium-ion batteries, a partial charge is actually better than a full charge because of the implications it brings with it for the long-term health of the battery.

End Of Life

The end of life for a battery is exactly that – the moment where the battery reaches the end of its usefulness and/or lifespan and can no longer operate at anywhere close to the peak capacity that you once enjoyed.

Generally speaking, end of life for a battery will be determined in one of three different ways depending on the product’s manufacturer.

Cycle life. This refers to the total number of times that a battery can be charged and discharged, as outlined above. Manufacturers will typically include the recommended cycle life on the product’s packaging or in other documentation available at the time of purchase.

Warrantied life. This will usually be outlined in a specific number of years, like any other product that you may have. A battery with a 10-year life under warranty is typically expected to reach true end of life by roughly that time.

Total energy throughput. This is the total amount of energy that will pass through the battery over the course of its lifespan and this will usually be measured in megawatt-hours.

Occasionally, manufacturers will reference end of life using a measurement called expected operational life. If this is present, it will usually be somewhat longer than the “warrantied life” measurement. At that point, your battery will no longer be covered under any type of manufacturer’s warranty, but it will still continue to function until about the time that the listed number of years have passed.

It’s important to note, however, that end of life does not mean that your battery will suddenly become useless after a certain amount of time has passed. Far from it. It simply describes the total amount of time that you can expect your battery to operate at peak performance.

For the sake of example, consider the battery in your smartphone, tablet, or other type of mobile device. When you charge your phone for the first time after buying it, 100% may get you approximately 10 hours of use before you must charge the battery back up again. Over time, that number will slowly decrease. You may notice that you only get nine hours out of 100% capacity, or eight-and-a-half, even though your general use and operational conditions haven’t changed.

Once that battery reaches true end of life, that number is going to start to rapidly drop. This is because 100% no longer represents the same amount of stored energy that it once did. You’ll still be able to use your battery, but there will come a day where it won’t be able to hold a charge at all, at which point it will likely have to be totally replaced.

Best Practices For Prolonging The Life Of Your Battery

Consumers can absolutely manage their batteries differently to obtain more life cycles from a battery. They just need to remember to follow a few key best practices over time.

For starters, you should always keep your battery at a moderate temperature whenever possible. Instances of extreme heat or extreme cold can cause the battery to expand or contract, both of which will cause long-term issues and could ultimately lead to problems like corrosion.

Along the same lines, always store your batteries in a cool place whenever you’re not using them. If you’re going to be storing a battery for an indefinite period, don’t allow its charge to deplete to zero. Instead, store your battery with a charge of about 50% for the best long-term results.

For certain types of batteries like lithium-ion, you should also avoid deep cycling; don’t let your battery drain down to 0% before you charge it back up again. Experts at Battery University agree that lithium-ion batteries tend to last the longest when they are operating between 30% and 80% charge as often as possible.

Finally, you should also do whatever you can to avoid abusing your battery over time. Batteries will always experience additional stress via harsh discharges and rapid charges. If you’re going to be using a battery with a particular application, make sure that the battery is optimized for the power and energy requirements you’re working with. If necessary, increase the size of your battery to combat this type of unnecessary stress.

When a lithium-ion battery in particular reaches its natural end of life, you should also make sure that you dispose of it properly. You can’t just throw them in the garbage. They are technically considered to be hazardous waste in this state. Instead, contact your local landfill to find a battery recycling drop-off location in your area.

 

What Maintenance Do Electric Vehicles Need?

 

What maintenance?!

 

One of the main benefits of owning an electric vehicle, besides caring for the environment by not using gasoline and emitting fumes into the atmosphere, is the fact that it requires less of your time and money to make sure it runs smoothly.

The initial cost of purchasing such a vehicle is still quite high, but it pays off in the long run. EVs have fewer moving parts than Internal Combustion Engine vehicles, which means they have a smaller number of components in need of regular checkup and repair.

However, a few things will need your attention from time to time:

1) Monitor the battery

In an electric car, the battery takes up most of the space under the hood. While it may be bulky, heavy and complex, it doesn’t require day-to-day maintenance, but it will in time. As with any electric device, the more time passes, the less charge the battery holds and there’s nothing much you can do about it. You may not even notice it at first because it will take a lot for your EV to break down in the middle of the road, but eventually, you will realize that you can cover less mileage than before with a single battery charge.

Electric car batteries usually have a warranty of 8 years, but there are cases where it took 15 years for the battery to be officially faulty. When that happens, you will have two options. You will either return your car to the dealership, or you will find a battery specialty shop to replace your battery pack where you will faint from the sight of the bill. The cost of replacing perhaps the most important part of your electric vehicle is in the thousands or tens of thousands of dollars, which can still be too much for electric car owners depending on how much you had spent on purchasing the vehicle, to begin with. However, if you have grown accustomed to driving cleanly, you probably won’t go back to ICE cars.

2) Assess the brake wear

The interesting thing about electric vehicles is that they use the regenerative braking system, a process involving harnessing energy from the parts stored in the battery system for later use. Thus, brake wear on your vehicle’s pads and rotors is very limited and they will probably last twice as long as on an ICE vehicle.

Not only that, but it will even charge your car’s battery a bit since it captures kinetic energy that would have been lost in ICE vehicles. It cannot replace a charging session, but it can save you when you find yourself away from a charging station with a dangerously low battery level.

3) Check the tires

It doesn’t really matter the type of vehicle you own, tires have to be checked regularly to avoid having to replace them too often. However, tires on electric vehicles get to see extremes for various reasons. Firstly, EVs are 20-30% heavier than ICE cars because of the massive electric battery. Secondly, they deliver instant torque, which can be hard on the tires. Thus, it is common for the tire tread to wear out more quickly than on ICE cars. Your mechanic should pay attention to the inside edge of the tread since this area of the tire is sure to endure considerable damage.

Moreover, good tire pressure ensures a smooth ride and longer tire lifespan, so don’t be lazy and examine them every once in a while. Make sure the pressure is not below or above the recommended value so as not to ruin the tires. Keep the external temperatures in mind when checking, since their variation causes tire damage as well.

Make sure your wheels are aligned every 6 to 12 months, but especially when you hit a hard pothole or a curb. Proper wheel alignment is bound to make the tires last much longer than when they are not all pointing in the same direction.

Rotate your tires in accordance with the owner’s manual and don’t wait for the seasonal tire change. Still, it is important to follow the pattern of the tire tread. If they have the same pattern, and front and back tires are the same size, then it’s easy, just swap them front to back and back to front. But, if not, then you have to put the “left tire” on the right side wheel and vice versa. This can end up costing you more than simply replacing the tires, but if you want to go that way, keep in mind that the tires rotate in the right direction while spinning.

4) Top-up the fluids

Firstly, EVs with a liquid thermal management system will need you to check and replace the coolant regularly in accordance with the owner’s manual, just like with ICE cars. The reason is that, unlike ICE vehicles, electric cars have massive batteries which mustn’t be over or under heated, thus preventing vehicles from functioning properly.

Secondly, brake fluid requires the same amount of attention. Because of the specific braking system on EVs, there is significantly less degradation. You can get away with not changing it up to two years, depending on the make and model of your electric vehicle.

Thirdly, windshield wiper fluid is to be added more often, with taking into account temperature changes which come with different seasons. Choose between summer and winter blends according to the external temperature in order to avoid fluid freezing in the winter.

5) Replace cabin air filter

With EVs spearheading the green revolution and keeping the air outside of the car as clean as it can get, it is not surprising that the air inside the cabin has to be of high quality as well. Some of the electric vehicles that come from production lines these days have a special type of filters which create positive pressure inside the cabin and are capable of making and keeping the air clean as it is in hospital rooms. Not only are outside smells reduced to a minimum, but also are sub-particles and allergens that could enter the cabin. In order to keep such a level of comfort and health care, you mustn’t neglect to change your cabin air filters at least once a year. You can even do it yourself after 30k or so miles of driving, by spending up to $50 on the new filter and an hour of your time.

6) Update the software

If you look at your electric vehicle as a giant gadget, then you understand the importance of regular updates. They ensure that EVs run longer and more smoothly, schedule and reschedule maintenance appointments, but also take care of various security issues that tend to come up more and more these days. For the vehicles that require you to get them to the dealership for an update, don’t be lazy, and get that taken care of as soon as you hear there is an update for your car’s software. If you have the option of the over-the-air software update, then you have nothing to concern yourself with – the update will be run without you.

7) Take care of the body

As long as you take good care of the chassis of your car, you can minimize both your bill at the mechanic and your worry about having to replace your vehicle for a new one. Also, the better your car looks to you, it’s owner and driver, both inside and out, the greater the pleasure you will have in driving it. From there, it goes that if it looks good and it runs well, you will not have to replace it prematurely if you don’t want to.

On the other hand, issues you don’t need to concern yourself with if you own an electric vehicle are as follows:

1)   Fuel

2)   Muffler

3)   Spark plugs and wires

4)   Motor oil

5)   Automatic transmission fluid

6)   Radiator fluid top-ups and fixes

 

Your EV doesn’t have the mentioned components. Therefore, your life is easier because you don’t have to run to your mechanic worrying they can cause you to be stranded on the side of the road with a broken down car.

 

solar battery

Types of Battery Used in Solar Lights and Advantage

Solar lights can use different kind of battery types. Below we shall explain you different kinds of rechargeable battery which one can use in solar lights.

 

Lead–acid battery and SMF.

lithium ion battery or Li-ion.

lithium ion battery phosphate or LiFePO4.

LEAD-ACID BATTERY AND SMF:

Because of the price advantage people widely use lead acid batteries. It is inexpensive compared to new technologies batteries. But there are many disadvantages compared to Li-ion an LifePO4. It need regular maintenance, Risk of explosion is more, there are lot of environment concerns as it contains lead and it will be difficult to handle extreme weather conditions. Life of the battery is around 3 – 4 years.

 

Two of the biggest disadvantage of using lead acid battery is it needs a bigger solar panel for charging and size of battery is bigger and will require lot of space. Solar panel will have to generate at least 12 V to charge the battery. That means during cloudy days it will be difficult to generate 12 V.

 

LITHIUM ION BATTERY OR LI-ION:

Li-ion battery is compact and priced higher compared to Lead-acid battery. It requires 3.7 V of power for charging. That means solar panel size will be smaller. During cloudy days’ solar panel can generate 3.7 V and these batteries will easily charge.

 

These batteries require no maintenance and life of battery will be 5 – 6 years. Only disadvantage is there might be chances of explosion in extreme weather. Li-ion batteries efficiency reduces during Very high or very low temperatures.

 

LITHIUM ION PHOSPHATE BATTERY OR LIFEPO4.

LiFePO4 battery is compact and priced higher compared to Li-ion. It is most advanced battery type currently available in market. It requires 3.2 V of power for charging. That means solar panel size can be smaller. During cloudy days’ solar panel can generate 3.2 V and these batteries will easily charge.

 

These batteries require no maintenance and life of battery will be 9 – 12 years. Advantages of using this battery is it can with stand extreme weather conditions. Hence this is most safer battery.

 

Usage of Batteries in Solar Lights.

Lead acid batteries are widely in usage for home lighting system and emergency solar lights. Usage of Li-ion and LiFeP04 batteries are in integrated solar light system. All in One lights like, Solar Garden Lights, Solar Street Light, Solar Flood Lights etc. uses these battery types.

 

Solar Home Lighting System :

Home Lighting system requires bigger battery capacity. Bigger battery means more price.  Hence in India people use LED acid batteries. These batteries are manufactured in India unlike Li-ion and LiFeP04 batteries are imported.  These batteries require regular maintenance the life span in less compared to other batteries types.

 

Solar Street Light and Solar Garden Lights:

All the three batteries are available for solar street lights. People have started switching to Li-ion and LiFeP04 batteries for street lights. Li-ion and LiFeP04 batteries are not manufactured in India, It is imported from China, Japan or Taiwan. India has started research on development of Li-ion cell in 2018. Once they start manufacturing these batteries product cost is go down by 20%.

Lipo Battery

One thing is for sure: lithium battery technology is currently leading the way in the field of mobile power supply. Just look in your pocket: There is no smartphone that is not powered by a lithium polymer battery. Since the Swedish mobile phone provider Ericsson launched the first mobile phone with a lithium polymer battery in 1999, the technology has become an indispensable part of the industry. The reasons are manyfold.

 

Just like lithium ion batteries, lithium polymer batteries have a very high energy density compared to other cell chemistries and are therefore particularly powerful. At the same time, they are extremely durable thanks to the low self-discharge of the battery cells.

 

Same Performance, Higher Flexibility

The flexibility of their design makes lithium polymer batteries particularly attractive. While lithium ion cells always have a sturdy metal housing, lithium polymer cells are only enclosed in a thin layer of plastic-laminated aluminium foil. In addition, the sandwich like structure of the lithium polymer cells enables significantly flatter battery designs than what is possible with lithium-ion batteries. Thanks to these two factors, lithium polymer batteries are available in almost every imaginable size. Even curved designs, for example for fitness bracelets or smartwatches, as well as ultra-thin batteries with a thickness of less than one millimeter are feasible.

 

Due to their flexibility and performance, lithium polymer batteries are in demand not only in mobile communications and consumer applications, but also in other industries such as medical technology. At the same time, however, the high voltage and the absence of a protective metal housing pose new challenges.

 

Safe Handling of Lithium Polymer Batteries

First, it must be considered that the cells of a lithium polymer battery expand while charging. If the battery is discharged, the cell reduces its thickness. This phenomenon, known as “swelling”, can cause lithium polymer cells to expand by up to ten percent of their original thickness over several cycles. Manufacturers of battery powered products should take this into account and calculate the size of the battery compartment accordingly. In addition, no sharp edged components should be placed in the immediate vicinity of the battery compartment, as they could potentially damage the battery.

 

Finally, lithium polymer cells require protective electronics for safe operation. This “Protection Circuit Module” (PCM) interrupts the circuit in critical operating conditions such as overcharging, short circuit or deep discharge.

 

As you can see: lithium polymer batteries are as powerful as they are demanding. For this reason, Jauch supports its customers throughout the entire project phase: from planning to developing the right battery pack and programming the right protective electronics. An overview of the entire Jauch portfolio of lithium polymer batteries can be found here.

PROPERLY MAINTAIN AND EXTEND THE LIFE OF YOUR RV BATTERIES BY UNDERSTANDING THE BASICS OF YOUR RV BATTERIES AND HOW THEY WORK.

To properly maintain and extend the life of your RV batteries you need to have a basic understanding of what a battery is and how it works. Batteries used in RVs are lead acid batteries, which means they have several cells connected in series. Each cell produces approximately 2.1 volts, so a 12-volt battery with six cells in series produces an out put voltage of 12.6 volts. Lead acid batteries are made of plates, lead and lead oxide submersed in electrolyte that is 36 percent sulfuric acid and 64 percent water. Lead acid batteries don’t make electricity they store electricity. The size of the lead plates and the amount of electrolyte determines the amount of charge a battery can store.

Now it’s very important that you use the right battery for the type of application. The battery used to start and run the engine is referred to as a chassis battery or a starting battery. Vehicle starters require large starting currents for short periods. Starting batteries have a large number of thin plates to maximize the plate area exposed to the electrolyte. This is what provides the large amount of current in short bursts. Starting batteries are rated in Cold Cranking Amps (CCA). CCA is the number of amps the battery can deliver at 0 degrees F for 30 seconds and not drop below 7.2 volts. Starting batteries should not be used for deep cycle applications.

The battery or batteries used to supply 12-volts to the RV itself are commonly referred to as house batteries. House batteries need to be deep cycle batteries that are designed to provide a steady amount of current over a long period. Starting batteries and marine batteries should not be used in this application. True deep cycle batteries have much thicker plates and are designed to be deeply discharged and recharged repeatedly. These batteries are rated in Amp Hours (AH) and more recently Reserve Capacity (RC).

The amp hour rating is basically, how many amps the battery can deliver for how many hours before the battery is discharged. Amps times hours. In other words a battery that can deliver 5 amps for 20 hours before it is discharged would have a 100 amp hour rating 5 Amps X 20 Hours = 100Amp Hours. This same battery can deliver 20 amps for 5 hours 20 Amps X 5 Hours = 100 Amp Hours. Reserve Capacity rating (RC) is the number of minutes at 80 degrees F that the battery can deliver 25 amps until it drops below 10.5 volts. To figure the amp hour rating you can multiply the RC rating by 60 percent. RC X 60 percent.

The two major construction types of deep cycle batteries are flooded lead acid and Valve Regulated Lead Acid. Flooded lead acid batteries are the most common type and come in two styles. Serviceable with removable caps so you can inspect and perform maintenance or the maintenance free type. In VRLA batteries, the electrolyte is suspended in either a gel or a fiberglass-mat. Gel cell batteries use battery acid in the form of a gel. They are leak proof and because of this, they work well for marine applications.

There are several disadvantages to gel cell batteries for RV applications. Most importantly, they must be charged at a slower rate and a lower voltage than flooded cell batteries. Any overcharging can cause permanent damage to the cells. Absorbed Glass Mat, or AGM Technology, uses a fibrous mat between the plates, which is 90 percent soaked in electrolyte. They are more expensive than a standard deep cycle battery but they have some advantages. They can be charged the same as a standard lead acid battery, they don’t loose any water, they can’t leak, they are virtually maintenance free and they are almost impossible to freeze.

The life expectancy of your RV batteries depends on you. How they’re used, how well they’re maintained, how they’re discharged, how they’re re-charged, and how they are stored, all contribute to a batteries life span. A battery cycle is one complete discharge from 100 percent down to about 50 percent and then re-charged back to 100 percent. One important factor to battery life is how deep the battery is cycled each time. If the battery is discharged to 50 percent everyday, it will last twice as long as it would if it is cycled to 80 percent. Keep this in mind when you consider a battery’s amp hour rating. The amp hour rating is really cut in half because you don’t want to completely discharge the battery before recharging it. The life expectancy of a battery depends on how soon a discharged battery is recharged. The sooner it is recharged the better.

What does all of this mean to you? That depends on how you use your RV. If most of your camping is done where you are plugged into an electrical source then your main concern is just to properly maintain your deep cycle batteries. But if you really like to get away from it all and you do some serious dry camping you’ll want the highest amp hour capacities you can fit on your RV.

Deep cycle batteries come in all different sizes. Some are designated by Group size, like group 24, 27 and 31. Basically, the larger the battery the more amp hours you get. Depending on your needs and the amount of space you have available, there are several options when it comes to batteries.

You can use one 12-volt 24 group deep cycle battery that provides 70 to 85 AH.

You can use two 12-volt 24 group batteries wired in parallel that provides 140 to 170 AH. Parallel wiring increases amp hours but not voltage.

If you have the room, you can do what a lot of RVers do and switch from the standard 12-volt batteries to two of the larger 6-volt golf cart batteries. These pairs of 6-volt batteries need to be wired in series to produce the required 12-volts and they will provide 180 to 220 AH. Series wiring increases voltage but not amp hours.

If this still doesn’t satisfy your requirements you can build larger battery banks using four 6-volt batteries wired in series / parallel that will give you 12-volts and double your AH capacity.

 

How lipo battery’s performance affected by temperature?

Himax lipo battery

I think everyone here must have the similar experience with me, your smartphone will consume very fast, your phone will dead for only half a day. In fact, the lithium-ion polymer batteries are the vast majority used of smartphones, and a variety of factors will affect the performance of the lipo battery. These factors are similar to RC devices such as our drones and RC car. Especially for temperature factors, so let’s talk about how temperature affects the performance of the battery and why it affects it.

Does temperature affect lipo battery’s performance?

Battery in high temperature or low-temperature environment affect the performance of the battery? Let’s first look at the following chart:

I think everyone here must have the similar experience with me, your smartphone will consume very fast, your phone will dead for only half a day. In fact, the lithium-ion polymer batteries are the vast majority used of smartphones, and a variety of factors will affect the performance of the lipo battery. These factors are similar to RC devices such as our drones and RC car. Especially for temperature factors, so let’s talk about how temperature affects the performance of the battery and why it affects it.

Does temperature affect lipo battery’s performance?

Battery in high temperature or low-temperature environment affect the performance of the battery? Let’s first look at the following chart:

We can see that during the battery used, the higher electric current, faster voltage decay speed, and overload of the high current is more likely causing the battery to be over-discharged and damaged (safety level reduced, life decay is too fast). Therefore, the ambient temperature has a great influence on the performance of the battery, and the lower the temperature, the lower the discharge platform and efficiency.

Low temperature harm battery capacity

The optimal level of operating temperature for lithium batteries is 0 to 35℃. The low-temperature environment will reduce the activity of lithium ions, the lipo battery discharge capacity will be weak, and the use time will be shortened. If the lithium battery using in a low-temperature environment for a short period of time, the damage is only temporary and does not damage the battery capacity. The performance will recover when reinforcing the temperature.

However, if the battery is charged and discharged in a low-temperature environment for a long time, metal lithium will be separated out on the surface of the “battery anode”. This process is irreversible and permanently damage to the battery capacity. Like sometimes, at low temperatures, our smartphone will automatically shut down. It is for the purpose of protecting the battery, on the other side, it is also caused by the unqualified and aging of the self-battery.

So, how to use batteries in an extreme environment?

Recommendations in Summer, or High temperature environment:

– Charging

The charging temperature range from 5 to 45°C;

The upper limit voltage of charging shall not exceed 4.22V. The temperature at the period of charging shall not exceed 45 °C;

Charging needs to be charged at room temperature (≤35 °C), used within 48 hours after charging, if not used, timely discharge to the storage voltage (3.8-3.9V);

The battery cannot be charged immediately after high-temperature discharge or high temperature, and the battery surface temperature can be charged below 40 °C.

Must use the manufacturer’s matching charger for charging, can not illegally use other equipment to carry out large current on the battery (≥1.5C)

The upper limit voltage of charging shall not exceed 4.22V. The temperature during charging shall not exceed 45 °C.

– Discharge

The temperature range during discharge is within 45 ° C;

The discharge current shall not exceed the maximum current identified in the specification;

The lower limit alarm voltage of discharge shall not be lower than 3.6V, the rebound voltage shall not be lower than 3.65V, and the surface temperature of the battery after high current discharge shall not exceed 70°C;

The battery should not be exposed to the sun before and after discharge. The surface temperature of the battery before discharge should not exceed 45 °C.

Recommendations in Winter, or Low temperature environment:

– Charging

Charging should be carried out at room temperature (5 ° C or above, 20 ° C is best), such as indoors, cars, etc., and can not be charged in high ≥ 40 °C environment;

Retrieving the battery from the outside cannot be charged immediately, and then charging the battery after the surface temperature of the battery reaches the room temperature environment;

must use the manufacturer’s matching charger for charging, can not illegally use other equipment to carry out large current on the battery (≥1.5C)

– Discharge

After discharge, the battery should be effectively insulated (such as using a thermos cup, incubator, etc.) to ensure that the temperature of the battery body is kept above 10 °C, 20 °C is best.

After the battery is loaded into the aircraft, it is necessary to check the remaining battery power from the APP, and whether the voltage information is abnormal;

When the battery temperature does not reach 20 °C or above, it is not suitable for large maneuvering.

Compared with the room temperature (about 20 °C), the battery life of the battery will be significantly shortened in the low-temperature environment. After the low battery alarm, the drone should be returned immediately for charging.

Use high temperature, Low-temperature resistant lithium batteries

In order to ensure the life and safety of the lithium battery, the protection management system (BMS system) is adopted in the battery pack of the high-temperature lithium battery to prevent overcharging, over-discharging, high-temperature operation, low-temperature charging, or short circuit, and even safety problem. Such as Himax fast-charge battery, the temperature will rise steadily during the fast charging process. The surface temperature of the fast charge battery must not exceed 65 degrees Celsius. During the fast charging process, the temperature will rise stably. The surface temperature of the battery will not exceed 65 degrees Celsius.

Other battery option: LiFePO4 Battery

In other application areas, like e-bike, camping portable power station, usually choose Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery (LiFePO4 Battery), also called LFP battery. It is a type of rechargeable battery. LiFePO4 technologies offer high-powered cell performance compatible with lots of lithium-ion application to deliver more power and extend life, also has these six advantages:

Good high-temperature resistance.

No memory effect

Higher-capacity compare with same size lead acid battery

Longer cycle life than other lithium-ion batteries

Good safety characteristics and Eco-friendly

Ideal drop-in replacement for lead-acid batteries

If you have more opinions and ideas, please feel free to comment below. If you want to know more, you can keep following our website.

 

 

Solar Battery

Top Benefits of Solar Battery Storage for Your Home

If you have solar panels or are looking to install solar panels, you want to get the most out of your energy system. Installing solar battery storage for excess electricity generated by your panels is one great way to improve your electricity generation system’s performance throughout the day. Here are the top benefits of solar battery storage.

Power When You Need It
One of the biggest problems with solar panels is that they only produce electricity when there’s light outside. Usually, this is when you’re not at home because of daytime activities like work and kid’s sports. Clouds and shade can also reduce the output of solar panels, causing your home to have to draw off the grid if it’s using too much electricity. With a battery, the energy that your solar panels create that isn’t used at the time of its generation gets stored. You can use the stored energy at night or doing those cloudy times when you’re at home without having to draw off the grid.
Solar Battery

Energy Security

The ability to store energy allows you to be less dependent on the grid for additional power. If you live in a place that experiences frequent brownouts or has a decaying energy infrastructure, solar batteries can help insulate you from the consequences of poor grid management. You move to greater self-sufficiency and are more in control of your energy destiny. This is great for people who are looking to get off the grid.

Better for the Environment

Most electricity on the grid is generated through coal plants and other fossil fuels. Storing your energy allows you to use the most environmentally friendly energy available. Your solar power system will continue to use fewer resources throughout the year while producing little to no waste and pollution. Because of advances in photovoltaic technology, panels create less pollution than fossil fuels during their comparative lifetime uses.

A Quiet Solution

No one wants to have to deal with the roar of a generator as it coughs to life. Even a gentle hum can be disturbing for those who are noise sensitive. Unlike noisy generators run by fossil fuels, solar batteries are silent. You don’t have to worry about trying to sleep at night or annoying the neighbors. You get all the benefits of instant electricity with none of the local pollution—both noise and air—produced by a generator. You also don’t have to store flammable or explosive fuel at your home, so you can enjoy your home and breathe easier—literally and figuratively.

 

Lower Electrical Bills

In some places, the electric utility is required to buy back any energy that you create in excess of what you use. While this results in a lower electric bill for you, using solar storage systems also results in a reduction of your energy bill because you consume less energy from the grid. Generally, the buyback is less than what the energy is sold for, so you get more for your money when you can store and use your own energy. Contact the experts at The Himax battery by visiting https://himax.en.alibaba.com/ and learn more about the solar battery.